沙漠研究
Online ISSN : 2189-1761
Print ISSN : 0917-6985
ISSN-L : 0917-6985
26 巻 , 4 号
選択された号の論文の9件中1~9を表示しています
原著論文
  • 平田 昌弘, ナムタルジャ , 小川 龍之介, 海老原 志穂, 別所 裕介, 星 泉
    2017 年 26 巻 4 号 p. 187-196
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/05/04
    ジャーナル フリー

    チベット系の人びとの言語や文化は地域により多様である.このような多様なチベット諸集団の文化は,近代化の中で,急速に失われつつある.著者らは,牧畜という生業を支える乳文化に着目し,チベット諸集団の文化の保全のために乳加工技術を正確に記述すると共に,乳文化の視座からチベット諸集団の多様性と特徴とを解析してきた.本稿の目的は,中国青海省のアムド系チベット牧畜民が現在採用している乳加工体系を把握し,アムド系チベット牧畜民の乳加工体系の近年の変遷過程とその要因を分析することにある.アムド系チベット牧畜民は,発酵乳系列群,クリーム分離系列群,凝固剤使用系列群の乳加工技術を利用してきた.発酵乳をチャーニングしてバターを加工し,発酵により酸性化したバターミルクを加熱・乳酸発酵・脱水することにより非熟成乾燥チーズを加工するという発酵乳系列群が中心的な乳加工技術を成していた.クリーム分離系列群や凝固剤使用系列群の乳加工技術は,一時的に利用されるに留まっていた.1980年代に中国政府がクリームセパレーターを紹介することにより,バターや非熟成乾燥チーズといった多くの乳製品は,クリーム分離系列群の乳加工技術が担うように急速に変遷していった.発酵乳系列群では,生乳からの酸乳への加工のみが継承される状況にある.これらの近年の乳加工技術の変化は,酸乳がアムド系牧畜民の食生活において不可欠な食材であったこと,バター加工の原材料が発酵乳からクリームへと変わることにより労働力が大幅に軽減されたことにより生じたものと考えられる.外部から影響を受けた技術革新は,現地に暮らす人びとの意思によって取捨選択され,その結果として文化は変遷していくのである.

小特集:日本沙漠学会2016年度秋季シンポジウム
概要
小特集原著論文:日本沙漠学会2016年度秋季シンポジウム
  • Sabir T. NURTAZI, Margulan K. IKLASOV, Kaoru IMAMURA
    2017 年 26 巻 4 号 p. 199-203
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/05/04
    ジャーナル フリー

    For thousands of years, the camels were the main working pack animals in the nomadic pastoralist economy of Kazakh ancestors. Later in the 19-20th centuries, with the expansion of the network of dirt roads, camels were successfully used as draft animals, which caused spread of these animals beyond their natural habitat to the southern provinces of Russia.

    The number of camels in Kazakhstan in 1927, in the Soviet period, has reached its maximum 1.69 million. With the development of mechanized transport, the value of camels as draft animals fell, at the same time the demand for camel specific products, such as milk, meat, wool, leather, was limited. Great damage to agriculture was caused by ill-conceived socio-economic reforms in the 1930s, which led to catastrophic camel population decline. Later, the number of camels slightly increased and stabilized, the level of selection and breeding work and the proportion of purebred animals have increased. Ever since Kazakhstan gained independence the total number of camels has been increasing gradually in the area of their natural habitat, which is associated with high profitability of camel breeding in deserts and semi-deserts of the south-western regions of Kazakhstan. Productive camel breeding allows involving these lands and its people in economically profitable production. Improvement of breed and productive qualities of camel is very important in the country.

  • Renato Sala
    2017 年 26 巻 4 号 p. 205-211
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/05/04
    ジャーナル フリー

    The domestication of camels happened at the start of the III millennium BC in their natural habitats, for the dromedary in SE-Arabia, for the Bactrian camel in SW-Central Asia. Three steps of camel domestication and use are distinguished: for harvesting its body products, as transport animal (drafted, loaded, and ridden), as military animal. With the start of the I millennium BC the introduction of new saddle types and of hybridization techniques promoted, in all the arid expanses of Afro-Eurasia, the growing superiority of the loaded camel over wheels and draft transports, and of camelry over cavalry.

  • Buho HOSHINO, Sara MORIOKA, Nami HASEGAWA, Mei SUGAWARA, Kaoru IMAMURA ...
    2017 年 26 巻 4 号 p. 213-217
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/05/04
    ジャーナル フリー

    Kazakhstan dry steppe is one of important pasture lands of breeding of dromedary camels. In this study, we analysis the behavior patterns and habitat use of dromedary camels based on satellite (GPS) tracking data and to clear the relationship between an increase in the camel farm and climate change. The herdsman’s (or Owners) is decision the pastureland use by year-to-year rainfall. They are also known how to control the different grazing lands by the dry season and the rainy season in the same year. Camel’s behavioral pattern was different in the dry season and the rainy season. The result shows, the average value of the moving speed in the pastures of spring (rainy season) is 2.81 ± 1.64 km / h, and the average value of the grazing speed is 0.324 ± 0.241 km / h in same season. In addition, the average value of the moving speed in the pastures of the summer (dry season) is 4.85 ± 0.1278 km / h, and the average value of the grazing speed is 1.027 ± 0.128 km / h in dry season. More of the moving speed and deviation value of grazing speed Both the dry season, the variation is large, it can be seen that the movement speed is also nearly twice of the rainy season. However, 50% core area (MCP, Minimum Convex Polygon) of home range of grazing area in has been shown to be more of the rainy season, because we finding that in dry season the main food resources of camel is tree leaves and tree branches or shrubs. Recently, lot of studies shows indicated that continuous herbivory pressure has a positive effect on plant performance and biodiversity, known as “grazing optimization.” In this study, we established three sites of the different pasturage pressure and investigated relationship between pasturage pressure and the Simpson's Index of Diversity (D-value) based on field observations (measurements), GPS tracking and stocking of camels. We analytically examined a hypothesis of grazing optimization in which herbivory improves the photosynthetic ability of individual plants. We examined plant performance under various herbivory pressures and considered the evolution of plant phenology in response to a given herbivory pressure.

  • Satomi ISHII, Buho HOSHINO, Sabir T. NURTAZIN
    2017 年 26 巻 4 号 p. 219-222
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/05/04
    ジャーナル フリー

    This study examined the components of the milk of one-humped and two-humped camels kept in same area in Kazakhstan, in May (rainy season) and August (dry season) 2015. Milk was sampled from camels of the same age that grazed on the same pastures. The general component analyses of camel milk involved the nutrition values, protein and fat content. The milk sampled from two-humped camels was found to contain greater densities of these components than milk sampled from one-humped camels. The values of calcium, phosphorus, zinc, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, phenylalanine, and lysine were higher in the two-humped camel milk samples. The densities of general components in the milk from both one-humped and two-humped camels were lower in the August samples than in those from May. Free amino acid densities in all milk samples were, however, higher in August than in May. The observed increase in August was considered to be related to the consumption of dry grasses that require longer rumination time and hence an increased activity of rumen microorganisms, and their nutritional byproducts. It may also be necessary to consider the grass type and nutrition ingested by the camels as well as the season for milking with regard to the quality and composition of milk.

  • Naruya SAITOU, Shayire SHOKAT
    2017 年 26 巻 4 号 p. 223-226
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/05/04
    ジャーナル フリー

    Family Camelidae includes Guanaco and Vicuna in South America and two-humped camels (Camelus bactrians and C. ferus) and one-humped camels (C. dromedarius) are distributed from Eurasia to Northern Africa. We reviewed studies on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA of camels. We collected 37 complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of Camelid including those of now extinct Camelops which distributed in North America from DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank International Nucleotide Sequence Database. Neighbor-joining trees were constructed for these sequences, and evolution of family Camelidae and genus Camelus are discussed with special reference to demographic changes of C. bactrians and C. dromedarius.

  • Mari KAZATO
    2017 年 26 巻 4 号 p. 227-231
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/05/04
    ジャーナル フリー

    Increasing population growth and urbanization have taken place in Mongolia since the beginning of the 20th century. Using micro- and long-term analyses, this study examined how Mongols divide their time between living in urban and pastoral areas. Urban areas were chosen when children were of school age, jobs with high wages were available in urban areas, and livestock was lost due to natural disasters. Pastoral areas were chosen for summer vacation or childcare leave and in times of job shortages due to recession. Both occupational skills and social relationships are indispensable for adapting to unpredictable socio-natural fluctuations, which are developed from the experiences of moving between urban and pastoral areas starting in childhood.

  • Kaoru IMAMURA, Ruslan SALMURZAULI, Margulan K. IKLASOV, Azim BAIBAYSSO ...
    2017 年 26 巻 4 号 p. 233-236
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/05/04
    ジャーナル フリー

    There are two domestic camel species: the dromedary and the Bactrian camel. The distribution of the two domestic camel species is clearly differs, although they meet at the latitude corresponding to an average temperature of around 21°C. The Bactrian occurs in the eastern area of Afro-Eurasia continent; from Mongolia to Central Asia. While, the dromedary inhabits western area; from the Arabian Peninsula to the Sahara desert. In Kazakhstan, they keep both species and hybrid of them. The dromedary is dominant in the eastern Kazakhstan, around Almaty; and the Bactrian is prevalent in north-western part, around Aktobe. In our study, we found that nowadays, the geographic distribution of both camel species is greatly determined by the climatic factors; for instance the one-humped camel could be breed in environment where the annual average air temperature is above 10°C and the record low air temperature dips minus 38°C or above. It is difficult to keep one-humped camels in the northern region to the 45°N altitude. Also, economic demand is important factor for the geographic distribution of both camel species. Nowadays, the dromedary is dominant especially in Almaty region despite its severe climatic conditions. Because, Almaty is a largest economic center in Kazakhstan and in another side, the dromedary produce much more milk than Bactrian.

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