2012 年 19 巻 1 号 p. 1-12
In this paper I study about a rural self governing collectivity at the Tada village in the NanYo (south of the Iyo) including the Uwa basin, south-west of the Ehime Prefecture. I refer to the NanYo's history from ancient era to present days. That is, 1) Status of NanYo under the Ritsuryo legal codes. 2) The social structure of Early Modern village system in NanYo. 3) The political and social structure of the new Tada administrative village after the Meiji Restoration, in 1890. 4) Self governance of the people after the administrative consolidation of 6 villages into the Uwa-town in 1954, and that of 5 towns into the Seiyo-city in 2004. 5) The collective life of inhabitants and residents in the Tada rural area in present days.
By this research I would like to clarify the concept of “community” , which is made up of multilayer structures. In the bases it existed the rural “commune” before Ritsuryo legal codes. Ritsuryo system went down from the Miyako (Capital) to the Kuni (for example Iyo country) , Gun (Uwa county) , and Go (Iwano area) in order to control rural communes or villages. But in early modern era Gun system was changed for the Kumi (unit of several villages) system in the Uwajima Clan. Then Meiji Restoration changed the Kuni into the Prefectures. Tada's rural 4 villages turned into the end organization of the Modern State as new Tada-village, Uwa-town, Seiyo-city, and it seems that the people have lost their autonomy at all. But people's self governance stays now in their daily human relationships, not combine enough with the local autonomy's reformations. So it is necessary to interface with each other to develop mutually the local sovereign power. The Tada people's motto for their life-philosophy is “Freedom, Justice and Friendship” which was taught by the President of Tada Junior High in the age of 1953-63.