The present study demonstrates the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in surface water from the Mankyung River, South Korea. Samples collected at 5 Sites along theMankyung River were assayed using a liquid chromatograph coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (LC/MS/MS) for 13 PPCPs. Overall, 11 out of the 13 selected PPCPs, which span a range of therapeutic classes and one personal care product, were detected in surface water samples collected from the Mankyung River. The most prevalent contaminants were ibuprofen, with average concentrations ranging from not detected (ND) to 414 ng/l, followed by carbamazepine (ND-595 ng/l), atenolol (ND-690 ng/l), clarithromycin (ND-443 ng/l), mefenamic acid (ND-326 ng/l), erythromycin (ND-137 ng/l), fluconazole (ND-111 ng/l), levofloxacin (ND-87.4 ng/l), indomethacin (ND-33.5 ng/l), propranolol (ND-40.1 ng/l), ifenprodil (ND-35.4 ng/l), disopyramide (ND) and triclosan (ND). PPCP concentrations were highest in surface water samples collected downstream from a sewage treatment plant (STP), implying possibly insufficient removal efficiency of the PPCPs in the STP. Contamination by PPCPs such as ibuprofen, carbamazepine, atenolol, mefenamic acid and clarithromycin was high in the Mankyung River compared to concentrations in other countries.
2009 by The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan