2008 Volume 50 Issue 3 Pages 229-235
The relationship between oxidative stress and carcinogenic metals including nickel and cadmium is a matter of interest. To assess the oxidative stress status of workers exposed to nickel and cadmium simultaneously, we determined urinary excretion of 8-hydroxyguanine (8-OH-Gua), a urinary oxidative stress marker. Our subjects were 66 (64 males and 2 females) nickel-cadmium battery workers. Spot urine and blood samples were collected. The levels of cadmium in blood (Cd-B) and nickel in urine (Ni-U) were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 8-OH-Gua in urine was analyzed using a high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detector (HPLC-ECD) system. Data on age, sex, duration of present work and smoking status were also obtained from each subject. Creatinine-adjusted 8-OH-Gua was significantly correlated with age, Ni-U and Cd-B in univariate analysis, while multivariate analysis revealed that Ni-U and Cd-B were significant independent variables and that these two biological exposure indices were positively correlated with 8-OH-Gua. The data were also analyzed in the context of mixture toxicity. The subjects were divided into groups based on median level of Ni-U and Cd-B (2.86 μg/g creatinine and 0.23 μg/dl, respectively). Workers with high Ni-U/high Cd-B (Group IV) had the highest levels of 8-OH-Gua levels (GM (GSD), 21.7(2.0)), followed by those with high Ni-U/low Cd-B (11.5(1.6) Group III), those with low Ni-U/high Cd-B (8.9(1.9) Group II), and those with low Ni-U/low Cd-B (8.5(1.5) Group I). The p values of Students' t-tests between Group I and Group II, III and IV were 0.847, 0.050 and <0.001, respectively. The combined effect of Cd and Ni on the urinary excretion of 8-OH-Gua departed from additivity.
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