Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the permeation of the low-volatile solvent limonene through different disposable, unlined, unsupported, nitrile exam whole gloves (blue, purple, sterling, and lavender, from Kimberly-Clark). Methods: This study utilized a moving and static dextrous robot hand as part of a novel dynamic permeation system that allowed sampling at specific times. Quantitation of limonene in samples was based on capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the internal standard method (4-bromophenol). Results: The average post-permeation thicknesses (before reconditioning) for all gloves for both the moving and static hand were more than 10% of the pre-permeation ones (P≤0.05), although this was not so on reconditioning. The standardized breakthrough times and steady-state permeation periods were similar for the blue, purple, and sterling gloves. Both methods had similar sensitivity. The lavender glove showed a higher permeation rate (0.490±0.031 μg/cm2/min) for the moving robotic hand compared to the non-moving hand (P≤0.05), this being ascribed to a thickness threshold. Conclusions: Permeation parameters for the static and dynamic robot hand models indicate that both methods have similar sensitivity in detecting the analyte during permeation and the blue, purple, and sterling gloves behave similarly during the permeation process whether moving or non-moving.
2017 by the Japan Society for Occupational Health