2020 Volume 62 Issue 1
Objectives: Using annual health check-up data, the aim of this study was to identify target populations for lifestyle interventions to effectively prevent diabetes in a real-world setting.
Methods: The Japan Diabetes Outcome Intervention Trial-1, a prospective, cluster-randomized controlled trial, was launched to test if year-long telephone-delivered lifestyle support by health professionals can prevent the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in people with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) identified at health check-ups. A total of 2607 participants aged 20-65 years with IFG were randomized to an intervention arm (n = 1240) or a control arm (n = 1367). We performed subgroup analysis to examine the effects of the intervention on the incidence of T2D in participants with body mass index (BMI) ≥25, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and non-alcoholic or alcoholic elevated liver enzymes at the baseline. Cox regression analysis adjusted for sex was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HRs).
Results: In addition to IFG, the presence of BMI ≥25, MetS, and elevated liver enzymes increased the incidence of diabetes by two- or three-fold. During a median follow-up period of 4.9 years, only the non-alcoholic elevated liver enzyme group showed a low incidence rate owing to lifestyle interventions (adjusted HR: 0.42, 95% confidence interval: 0.18-0.98).
Conclusion: The results suggest that people who have IFG and non-alcoholic elevated liver enzymes are a good target population for lifestyle interventions to effectively reduce the incidence of diabetes in a real-world setting.
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