2015 年 4 巻 1 号 p. 9-15
Physical activity guidelines have been published by governments to increase physical activity at a national level. Such guidelines commonly include behavior change techniques. To allow guidelines to contribute to physical activity promotion, it is necessary to enhance people’s awareness of these physical activity guidelines. The present article reviews trends regarding studies on the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of the awareness of physical activity guidelines, and on the relationship between the awareness of guidelines and physical activity behavior change. Compared with the awareness of physical activity guidelines in Canada (20.7-37.3%) and the United States (32.0-36.1%), awareness of physical activity guidelines was less prevalent in Japan (6.1-12.3%). More intensive campaigns promoting physical activity guidelines are necessary in Japan. Regardless of country, those with higher socioeconomic status (higher educational background or household income level) were more likely to be aware of physical activity guidelines. Promotion campaigns targeting those with low socioeconomic status are needed to reduce inequalities in the awareness level of such guidelines. Positive relationships between guideline awareness and physical activity levels have been reported in cross-sectional studies. However, longitudinal studies have not revealed any such positive relationships. Moreover, intervention studies have failed to show any effects of the guidelines on physical activity behavior change. Thus, the awareness of physical activity guidelines appears to have limited influence on physical activity behavior change. Unlike physical activity guidelines, the promotion of Japanese dietary guidelines has been successful in increasing healthy eating behaviors in Japanese adults.