2021 年 61 巻 2 号 p. 102-108
Lymphoma-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) has a significantly poor prognosis among secondary HLH. We describe the rare case of a 74-year-old female with secondary HLH presenting with a rapidly fatal course. Post-mortem examination revealed Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) -positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We were unable to make a definite antemortem diagnosis because the patient did not exhibit lymphadenopathy and bone marrow biopsy demonstrated hemophagocytosis without evidence of lymphoma. She died of multiple organ failure on the twelfth day of hospitalization despite a temporary response to steroids. Autopsy revealed diffuse lymphoma cell infiltration of the bone marrow, liver and spleen, suggesting “bone marrow-liver-spleen” (BLS)-type large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL). BLS-type LBCL is a rare and clinically aggressive lymphoma, usually associated with fever, cytopenia and HLH. The disease has a high mortality rate due to the delay in diagnosis and a highly aggressive clinical course. Further studies are required to improve our understanding of this rare extranodal DLBCL.