The Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Online ISSN : 1880-3989
Print ISSN : 0388-1350
ISSN-L : 0388-1350
Original Article
Assessing the therapeutic efficacy of oxime therapies against percutaneous organophosphorus pesticide and nerve agent challenges in the Hartley guinea pig
Thomas H. SniderChristina M. WilhelmMichael C. BabinGennady E. Platoff Jr.David T. Yeung
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JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

2015 Volume 40 Issue 6 Pages 759-775

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Abstract

Given the rapid onset of symptoms from intoxication by organophosphate (OP) compounds, a quick-acting, efficacious therapeutic regimen is needed. A primary component of anti-OP therapy is an oxime reactivator to rescue OP-inhibited acetylcholinesterases. Male guinea pigs, clipped of hair, received neat applications of either VR, VX, parathion, or phorate oxon (PHO) at the 85th percentile lethal dose, and, beginning with presentation of toxicosis, received the human equivalent dose therapy by intramuscular injection with two additional follow-on treatments at 3-hr intervals. Each therapy consisted of atropine free base at 0.4 mg/kg followed by one of eight candidate oximes. Lethality rates were obtained at 24 hr after VR, VX and PHO challenges, and at 48 hr after challenge with parathion. Lethality rates among symptomatic, oxime-treated groups were compared with that of positive control (OP-challenged and atropine-only treated) guinea pigs composited across the test days. Significant (p ≤ 0.05) protective therapy was afforded by 1,1-methylene bis(4(hydroxyimino- methyl)pyridinium) dimethanesulfonate (MMB4 DMS) against challenges of VR (p ≤ 0.001) and VX (p ≤ 0.05). Lethal effects of VX were also significantly (p ≤ 0.05) mitigated by treatments with oxo-[[1-[[4-(oxoazaniumylmethylidene)pyridin-1-yl]methoxymethyl]pyridin-4-ylidene]methyl]azanium dichloride (obidoxime Cl2) and 1-(((4-(aminocarbonyl) pyridinio)methoxy)methyl)-2,4-bis((hydroxyimino)methyl)pyridinium dimethanesulfonate (HLö-7 DMS). Against parathion, significant protective therapy was afforded by obidoxime dichloride (p ≤ 0.001) and 1,1′-propane-1,3-diylbis{4-[(E)-(hydroxyimino)methyl]pyridinium} dibromide (TMB-4, p ≤ 0.01). None of the oximes evaluated was therapeutically effective against PHO. Across the spectrum of OP chemicals tested, the oximes that offered the highest level of therapy were MMB4 DMS and obidoxime dichloride.

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© 2015 The Japanese Society of Toxicology
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