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Volume 40 , Issue 6
December
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Letter
  • Yutaka Yonezawa, Tomoka Ohsumi, Taishi Miyashita, Akira Kataoka, Kazut ...
    Volume 40 (2015) Issue 6 Pages 667-683
    Released: November 10, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Guinea pigs are the most frequently used animals in phototoxicity studies. However, general toxicity studies most often use Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. To reduce the number of animals needed for drug development, we examined whether skin phototoxicity studies could be performed using SD rats. A total of 19 drugs that had previously been shown to have phototoxic potential and 3 known phototoxic compounds were administered transdermally to guinea pigs and SD rats. Eleven of the potentially phototoxic drugs and 2 of the known phototoxic compounds were also administered orally to guinea pigs and SD rats. After administration, the animals were irradiated with UV-A (10 J/cm2) and UV-B (0.25 J/cm2 in guinea pigs and 0.031 J/cm2 in SD rats) with doses based on standard phototoxicity study guidelines and the results of a minimum erythema dose test, respectively. In the transdermal administration study, all of the known phototoxic compounds and 7 of the drugs induced phototoxic reactions. In the oral administration study, both known phototoxic compounds and 5 drugs induced phototoxic reactions in both species; one compound each was found to be toxic only in SD rats or guinea pigs. The concordance rate of guinea pigs and SD rats was 100% in the transdermal administration study and 85% in the oral administration study. This study demonstrated that phototoxicity studies using SD rats have the same potential to detect phototoxic compounds as studies using guinea pigs.
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Original Article
  • Satoshi Tsuji, Yusuke Kuwahara, Hironori Takagi, Masayuki Sugiura, Yut ...
    Volume 40 (2015) Issue 6 Pages 685-700
    Released: November 10, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The rasH2 transgenic (Tg) mice are susceptible to genotoxic and some non-genotoxic carcinogens. In carcinogenicity studies carried out using rasH2 Tg mice, the carcinogenic potential of chemicals are evaluated over a 26-week experimental period. In the present study, we examined the comprehensive gene expressions in the lungs of Tg and non-Tg mice prior to the induction of malignant tumors. Urethane (UR), a mutagenic carcinogen, was administered for 4 weeks, and thereafter withdrawn for 22 weeks. N-methylolacrylamide (NMA), a non-mutagenic carcinogen, was administered for 26 weeks. At week 4, gene expression analysis of non-neoplastic part of the lungs demonstrated changes in the expressions of the cell-cycle and inflammation related genes following UR and NMA treatment, respectively, in both the Tg and non-Tg mice. The gene expressions of epireguline, aurora kinase B, and cyclin B1 increased in the UR-treated Tg mice. We also found an increase in the plasma carcinoembryonic antigen level in the UR-treated Tg mice. Although UR treatment induced the formation of adenomas or adenocarcinomas in the lungs in all mice, earlier induction was apparent in the Tg mice. NMA treatment was found to induce the formation of adenomas and adenocarcinomas at week 26 in the Tg mice, but not in the non-Tg mice, and no expressions of specific genes were apparent in either genotype of mice. Our results indicate that analysis of cancer-related gene expressions in the lungs and plasma biomarkers at week 4 in rasH2 Tg mice could be a screening tool for carcinogenicity, especially of mutagenic carcinogens.
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Original Article
  • Zhaoju Dong, Zhengping Hu, Haibo Zhu, Ning Li, Huijuan Zhao, Wei Mi, W ...
    Volume 40 (2015) Issue 6 Pages 701-709
    Released: November 10, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Tris-(2,3-dibromopropyl) isocyanurate (TDBP-TAZTO), an emerging brominated flame retardant, possesses the characteristics of candidate persistent organic pollutants and has displayed toxicity to fish and rodents. TDBP-TAZTO can pass through the blood-brain barrier and accumulate in the brain. TDBP-TAZTO might also induce neuronal cell toxicity. However, the neurotoxicity and mechanisms of TDBP-TAZTO have not yet been studied. We hypothesize that TDBP-TAZTO could induce neurotoxicity in mouse hippocampal neurons and SH-SY5Y cells. The mice were exposed to TDBP-TAZTO of 5 and 50 mg/kg by gavage, daily for 30 days. TDBP-TAZTO resulted in depression-like behaviors, which may be related with TDBP-TAZTO-induced upregulation of oxidative stress markers and overexpression of pro-apoptotic proteins in hippocampus. Furthermore, TDBP-TAZTO treatment for 48 hr (12.5, 25 and 50 µM) damaged SH-SY5Y cells, and led to cell apoptosis and oxidative stress in concentration-dependent manner. Our findings suggested that cell apoptosis and oxidative stress are important mechanisms in neurotoxicity induced by TDBP-TAZTO.
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Letter
  • Juan Wang, Ping Jin, Wen-Hui Wang, Mei He, Zi-Teng Zhang, Yu Liu
    Volume 40 (2015) Issue 6 Pages 711-718
    Released: November 10, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Many studies have investigated the association between the A118G polymorphism in the μ-opioid receptor gene and smoking behaviors, but the results remain controversial. This meta-analysis aimed to derive a more reliable estimate of the effect of the A118G polymorphism on smoking behaviors. We systematically searched the PubMed/Medline, Embase and Web of Science databases for eligible articles published up to October 23, 2014. A total of six studies were selected. Odds ratios (ORs) as well as their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate the association between A118G polymorphism and smoking behaviors in four genetic models. Heterogeneity analysis and publication bias were also performed. Subgroup analysis was conducted according to different ethnicities. The meta-analysis was performed using either a fixed- or random-effects model as deemed appropriate. In the result of the meta-analysis, a significant association was detected in the dominant model in the Caucasian subgroup (OR = 3.26, 95% CI = 2.65-4.05). This result indicated that Caucasians carrying the G allele (AG + GG) of the A118G polymorphism in the μ-opioid receptor gene were more likely to be addicted to smoking compared with those with the AA homozygote. However, no significant association was found in other genetic models.
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Original Article
  • Taiki Kobayashi, Junichi Namekawa, Takasumi Shimomoto, Mari Yasui, Tak ...
    Volume 40 (2015) Issue 6 Pages 719-725
    Released: November 10, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Glucose has an important role in spermatogenesis. Nevertheless there are few reports in which the effects of long-lasting hypoglycemia on male reproductive organs have been evaluated. Therefore, insulin was administered subcutaneously at 100, 200, and 400 IU/kg to male rats twice a day for one month. This treatment regimen produced plasma glucose levels that rapidly decreased after treatment, with decreased glucose levels lasting for several hours after each administration on the first and final treatment days. During the treatment period, no abnormalities in clinical signs or body weight were observed. No statistically significant differences were noted in the weights of testes, epididymides, prostates and seminal vesicles, or pituitary glands. Histopathological examination revealed that the insulin-treated animals exhibited degeneration of seminiferous tubules in the testes and exfoliation of germ cells in the lumens of epididymides as a secondary change related to the testicular lesions. The incidences of the histopathological findings were found to be proportional to insulin dose. Sperm analysis of the group receiving the highest dosage indicated that the sperm concentration tended to decrease and the incidences of sperm malformations tended to increase. Our results suggest that long-lasting hypoglycemia affects male reproductive organs in rats.
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Original Article
  • Mariko Shirota, Jun Kawashima, Tomohiro Nakamura, Junichi Kamiie, Kinj ...
    Volume 40 (2015) Issue 6 Pages 727-738
    Released: November 10, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Xenoestrogen exposure during the critical period of sexual differentiation of the brain causes delayed effects on female reproduction. We investigated the internal dose of orally administered ethynylestradiol (EE) during the critical period and its delayed effects by administering 0 (vehicle control), 0.4, or 2 μg/kg EE to female Sprague-Dawley rats for 5 days from postnatal day (PND) 1. Determination of serum EE level 24 hr after the initial dosing and 6 and 24 hr after the final dosing of 2 μg/kg indicated that the administered EE entered the circulation and cleared after every administration. Although the treatment did not affect physical development, including growth, eyelid opening, and vaginal opening, the estrous cycle was arrested from postnatal week (PNW) 12 even with 0.4 μg/kg EE, with an inverse correlation between doses and arresting ages. Although ovarian morphology at PNW 22-23 indicated that the treatment caused long-term anovulation and cystic follicle formation, the number of primordial follicles at PNW 22-23 was similar among the groups. Because this number was lower than that at PND 10 in all groups, primordial follicles may have been consumed under long-term anovulation. The treatment also caused other abnormalities, including mammary gland hyperplasia, increase in pituitary and liver weights, and decrease in the uterine weight. Because the highest circulating EE level in the 2 μg/kg-treated neonates is considered to be comparable to the physiological range of estradiol-17β, we concluded that a slight increase in the circulating estrogens during the neonatal period exerts irreversible delayed effects.
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Letter
Original Article
  • Kayoko Matsunaga, Yasutaka Kuroda, Shinobu Sakai, Reiko Adachi, Reiko ...
    Volume 40 (2015) Issue 6 Pages 745-752
    Released: November 10, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Recent reports suggest that hydrolyzed wheat protein (HWP) variants such as Glupearl® 19S (GP19S) induce immediate-type hypersensitivity via epicutaneous (EC) sensitization. The identification of strong allergens is a key step in product assessment before commercial launch. However, few reports have described the estimation of actual and potential anaphylactic sensitizing capacity. In this study we assessed the strength of both the actual and potential anaphylactic sensitizing capacity by investigating the immediate-type hypersensitivity inducing potential of HWP compared with gluten. We assessed these strengths via the EC route using an EC or intradermal (ID) sensitization method. We quantified the strength of immediate-type hypersensitivity by evaluating the titer of serum antibodies isolated from sensitized subjects using passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reactions. We also evaluated the cross-reactivity between GP19S and gluten. GP19S and gluten applied by both the sensitization methods induced obvious IgG1-mediated PCA reactions. GP19S had stronger sensitizing potential than gluten, according to the serum titers and dye spot diameters. The difference in antibody titers between GP19S and gluten was 16-fold for the EC method versus 2-fold for the ID method. GP19S cross-reacted with gluten. Acid hydrolysis of gluten increased anaphylactic sensitizing capacity in the EC method. To our knowledge, our study is the first to quantitatively confirm that HWP and gluten can induce immediate-type hypersensitivity through an intact skin. These findings suggest that acid-HWP imposes a higher risk of EC sensitization than gluten because of the ease with which the former confers a sensitizing effect through the intact skin.
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Original Article
  • Yuichiro Kanno, Shuai Zhao, Naoya Yamashita, Kazuyuki Yanai, Kiyomitsu ...
    Volume 40 (2015) Issue 6 Pages 753-758
    Released: November 10, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It has been noticed that crosstalk between androgen receptor (AR) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways plays a crucial role in the proliferation of prostate cancer cells. To clarify this mechanism, we focused on DEPTOR, a naturally occurring inhibitor of mTOR. The treatment of a human AR-positive prostate cancer cell line, LNCaP, with the AR-agonist dihydrotestosterone (DHT) repressed DEPTOR mRNA expression in a time-dependent manner. This repression was abrogated by treatment with the AR-antagonist bicalutamide. Knockdown of DEPTOR mRNA by siRNA resulted in the increased phosphorylation of 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K), a substrate of mTORC1, accompanied by the elevated expression of cyclin D1, a positive regulator of cell proliferation. Furthermore, the ChIP assay demonstrated that AR could bind to AR-responsible element-like region within the 4th intron of the DEPTOR gene. The amount of acetylated histone H3 (Lys9, Lys14) was reduced by the DHT treatment in this region. Taken together, these results propose that AR-dependent prostate cancer cell proliferation requires decreased DEPTOR transcription directly controlled by AR.
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Original Article
  • Thomas H. Snider, Christina M. Wilhelm, Michael C. Babin, Gennady E ...
    Volume 40 (2015) Issue 6 Pages 759-775
    Released: November 10, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Given the rapid onset of symptoms from intoxication by organophosphate (OP) compounds, a quick-acting, efficacious therapeutic regimen is needed. A primary component of anti-OP therapy is an oxime reactivator to rescue OP-inhibited acetylcholinesterases. Male guinea pigs, clipped of hair, received neat applications of either VR, VX, parathion, or phorate oxon (PHO) at the 85th percentile lethal dose, and, beginning with presentation of toxicosis, received the human equivalent dose therapy by intramuscular injection with two additional follow-on treatments at 3-hr intervals. Each therapy consisted of atropine free base at 0.4 mg/kg followed by one of eight candidate oximes. Lethality rates were obtained at 24 hr after VR, VX and PHO challenges, and at 48 hr after challenge with parathion. Lethality rates among symptomatic, oxime-treated groups were compared with that of positive control (OP-challenged and atropine-only treated) guinea pigs composited across the test days. Significant (p ≤ 0.05) protective therapy was afforded by 1,1-methylene bis(4(hydroxyimino- methyl)pyridinium) dimethanesulfonate (MMB4 DMS) against challenges of VR (p ≤ 0.001) and VX (p ≤ 0.05). Lethal effects of VX were also significantly (p ≤ 0.05) mitigated by treatments with oxo-[[1-[[4-(oxoazaniumylmethylidene)pyridin-1-yl]methoxymethyl]pyridin-4-ylidene]methyl]azanium dichloride (obidoxime Cl2) and 1-(((4-(aminocarbonyl) pyridinio)methoxy)methyl)-2,4-bis((hydroxyimino)methyl)pyridinium dimethanesulfonate (HLö-7 DMS). Against parathion, significant protective therapy was afforded by obidoxime dichloride (p ≤ 0.001) and 1,1′-propane-1,3-diylbis{4-[(E)-(hydroxyimino)methyl]pyridinium} dibromide (TMB-4, p ≤ 0.01). None of the oximes evaluated was therapeutically effective against PHO. Across the spectrum of OP chemicals tested, the oximes that offered the highest level of therapy were MMB4 DMS and obidoxime dichloride.
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Original Article
  • Satoshi Takahashi, Koji Morita, Makoto Kinoshita, Shin Fujimori, Toshi ...
    Volume 40 (2015) Issue 6 Pages 777-786
    Released: November 10, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor activated by xenobiotics, including dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Although AhR is also activated by some dietary constituents, it has not been completely clarified in what circumstances AhR ligands are ingested in our daily life. Because PAHs are formed by the incomplete combustion of organic materials, we hypothesized that scorched foods might contain and leach out AhR ligands sufficient to stimulate AhR in vitro. To test this hypothesis, scorched foods (bread, cheese, etc.) were mixed vigorously with water, and the supernatants were retrieved as samples. The samples were added to HepG2 cells stably expressing an AhR-responsive reporter gene. Also, expression of CYP1A1, an endogenous AhR-responsive gene, was analyzed by RT-PCR in different cell lines treated with the samples. We further tested whether pretreatment of the samples with activated charcoal would alter their AhR-stimulating activity. All the supernatant samples tested induced AhR-dependent reporter gene activity and CYP1A1 mRNA expression. In some samples, these inductions were inhibited by pretreatment with activated charcoal. Our findings indicate that scorched food leachates stimulate AhR in cultured cells and that activated charcoal adsorbs the AhR-stimulating substances in some leachates. Thus, people who habitually eat scorched foods are exposed to AhR ligands on a regular basis. Further studies are needed to elucidate whether burnt foods actually exert biological effects on our health.
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Original Article
  • Yohei Sakamoto, Midori Yoshida, Kei Tamura, Miwa Takahashi, Yukio Koda ...
    Volume 40 (2015) Issue 6 Pages 787-796
    Released: November 10, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Nuclear receptors play important roles in chemically induced liver hypertrophy in rodents. To clarify the involvement of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and other nuclear receptors in mouse liver hypertrophy induced by different doses of piperonyl butoxide (PBO), wild-type and CAR-knockout mice were administered PBO (200, 1,000, or 5,000 ppm) in the basal diet for 1 week. Increased liver weight and diffuse hepatocellular hypertrophy were observed at 5,000 ppm for both genotypes, accompanied by increased Cyp3a11 mRNA and CYP3A protein expression, suggesting that CAR-independent pathway, possibly pregnane X receptor (PXR), plays a major role in the induction of hypertrophy. Moreover, wild-type mice at 5,000 ppm showed enhanced hepatocellular hypertrophy and strong positive staining for CYP2B in the centrilobular area, suggesting the localized contribution of CAR. At 1,000 ppm, only wild-type mice showed liver weight increase and centrilobular hepatocellular hypertrophy concurrent with elevated Cyp2b10 mRNA expression and strong CYP2B staining, indicating that CAR was essential at 1,000 ppm. We concluded that high-dose PBO induced hypertrophy via CAR and another pathway, while lower dose of PBO induced a pathway mediated predominantly by CAR. The dose-responsiveness on liver hypertrophy is important for understanding the involvement of nuclear receptors.
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Original Article
  • Jeffrey C. Raber, Sytze Elzinga, Charles Kaplan
    Volume 40 (2015) Issue 6 Pages 797-803
    Released: November 10, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Cannabis concentrates are gaining rapid popularity in the California medical cannabis market. These extracts are increasingly being consumed via a new inhalation method called ‘dabbing’. The act of consuming one dose is colloquially referred to as “doing a dab”. This paper investigates cannabinoid transfer efficiency, chemical composition and contamination of concentrated cannabis extracts used for dabbing. The studied concentrates represent material available in the California medical cannabis market. Fifty seven (57) concentrate samples were screened for cannabinoid content and the presence of residual solvents or pesticides. Considerable residual solvent and pesticide contamination were found in these concentrates. Over 80% of the concentrate samples were contaminated in some form. THC max concentrations ranged from 23.7% to 75.9% with the exception of one outlier containing 2.7% THC and 47.7% CBD. Up to 40% of the theoretically available THC could be captured in the vapor stream of a dab during inhalation experiments. Dabbing offers immediate physiological relief to patients in need but may also be more prone to abuse by recreational users seeking a more rapid and intense physiological effect.
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Letter
  • Hiroshi Matsumoto, Fumiyo Saito, Masahiro Takeyoshi
    Volume 40 (2015) Issue 6 Pages 805-807
    Released: November 10, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Recently, the development of several gene expression-based prediction methods has been attempted in the fields of toxicology. CARCINOscreen® is a gene expression-based screening method to predict carcinogenicity of chemicals which target the liver with high accuracy. In this study, we investigated the applicability of the gene expression-based screening method to SD and Wistar rats by using CARCINOscreen®, originally developed with F344 rats, with two carcinogens, 2,4-diaminotoluen and thioacetamide, and two non-carcinogens, 2,6-diaminotoluen and sodium benzoate. After the 28-day repeated dose test was conducted with each chemical in SD and Wistar rats, microarray analysis was performed using total RNA extracted from each liver. Obtained gene expression data were applied to CARCINOscreen®. Predictive scores obtained by the CARCINOscreen® for known carcinogens were > 2 in all strains of rats, while non-carcinogens gave prediction scores below 0.5. These results suggested that the gene expression based screening method, CARCINOscreen®, can be applied to SD and Wistar rats, widely used strains in toxicological studies, by setting of an appropriate boundary line of prediction score to classify the chemicals into carcinogens and non-carcinogens.
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Letter
  • Christian Riebeling, Kristin Fischer, Andreas Luch, Andrea E.M. Seile ...
    Volume 40 (2015) Issue 6 Pages 809-815
    Released: November 10, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The embryonic stem cell test (EST) is a promising system to detect embryotoxicity in vitro. Recent studies have pointed out some limitations of the EST and suggest that the applicability domain of the EST and its prediction model have to be better defined. Here, eight substances of known reproductive toxicity were tested in the EST under blind conditions. We applied the prediction model to the data of the EST after classifying the substances according to the published criteria. In addition, a simplified classification of the EST results into two classes as an approach to hazard assessment was compared to the European Union Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) Regulation labels of the substances. With one exception, substances that are labeled as reproductive toxicants according to the CLP Regulation were detected as embryotoxic in the EST while substances without label were found to be non-embryotoxic according to the EST.
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Original Article
  • Yueting Shao, Daniel Figeys, Zhibin Ning, Ryan Mailloux, Hing Man Chan
    Volume 40 (2015) Issue 6 Pages 817-828
    Released: November 10, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Exposure to environmental chemicals has been implicated as a possible risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Our previous study showed that methylmercury (MeHg) exposure can disrupt synthesis, uptake and metabolism of dopamine similar to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+). The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of MeHg exposure on gene and protein profiles in a dopaminergic MN9D cell line. MN9D cells were treated with MeHg (1-5 μM) and MPP+ (10-40 μM) for 48 hr. Real-time PCR Parkinson’s disease (PD) arrays and high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) were performed for the analysis. PD PCR array results showed that 19% genes were significantly changed in the 2.5 μM MeHg treated cells, and 39% genes were changed in the 5 μM MeHg treated cells. In comparison, MPP+ treatment (40 µM) resulted in significant changes in 25% genes. A total of 15 common genes were altered by both MeHg and MPP+, and dopaminergic signaling transduction was the most affected pathway. Proteomic analysis identified a total of 2496 proteins, of which 188, 233 and 395 proteins were differentially changed by 1 μM and 2.5 μM MeHg, and MPP+ respectively. A total of 61 common proteins were changed by both MeHg and MPP+ treatment. The changed proteins were mainly involved in energetic generation-related metabolism pathway (propanoate metabolism, pyruvate metabolism and fatty acid metabolism), oxidative phosphorylation, proteasome, PD and other neurodegenerative disorders. A total of 7 genes/proteins including Ube2l3 (Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 L3) and Th (Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase) were changed in both genomic and proteomic analysis. These results suggest that MeHg and MPP+ share many similar signaling pathways leading to the pathogenesis of PD and other neurodegenerative diseases.
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Letter
  • Kyosuke Yamashita, Hiroshi Matsumoto, Fumiyo Saito, Masahiro Takeyoshi
    Volume 40 (2015) Issue 6 Pages 829-836
    Released: November 10, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Anesthesia is used for pain control and is necessary in toxicological studies. In this study, we examined the effects of anesthesia on gene expression profiles caused by different types of anesthesia. To elucidate the effects of anesthesia on gene expression profiles, DNA microarray analysis was performed with CO2-O2 anesthesia and isoflurane anesthesia, and gene expression profiles in the liver were analyzed. Consequently, a total of 209 probes out of 61,573 showed higher or lower expression levels in the isoflurane anesthesia group compared with CO2-O2 anesthesia. This is less than 0.34% of all probes, indicating that the effects of different types of anesthesia on gene expression profiles are limited. However, careful consideration should be taken in the cases of handling the disturbed genes using DNA microarray, especially in case of research on glutathione-related pathway under isoflurane anesthesia.
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Letter
  • Isao Ishii, Shotaro Kamata, Yoshifumi Hagiya, Yumi Abiko, Tadashi Kasa ...
    Volume 40 (2015) Issue 6 Pages 837-841
    Released: November 10, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The key mechanism for hepatotoxicity resulting from acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is cytochrome P450-dependent formation of N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), a potent electrophilic metabolite that forms protein adducts. The fundamental roles of glutathione in the effective conjugation/clearance of NAPQI have been established, giving a molecular basis for the clinical use of N-acetylcysteine as a sole antidote. Recent evidence from in vitro experiments suggested that sulfide anions (S2–) to yield hydrogen sulfide anions (HS) under physiological pH could effectively react with NAPQI. This study evaluated the protective roles of HS against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. We utilized cystathionine γ-lyase-deficient (Cth–/–) mice that are highly sensitive to acetaminophen toxicity. Intraperitoneal injection of acetaminophen (150 mg/kg) into Cth–/– mice resulted in highly elevated levels of serum alanine/aspartate aminotransferases and lactate dehydrogenase associated with marked increases in oncotic hepatocytes; all of which were significantly inhibited by intraperitoneal preadministration of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). NaHS preadministration significantly suppressed APAP-induced serum malondialdehyde level increases without abrogating APAP-induced rapid depletion of hepatic glutathione. These results suggest that exogenous HS protects hepatocytes by directly scavenging reactive NAPQI rather than by increasing cystine uptake and thereby elevating intracellular glutathione levels, which provides a novel therapeutic approach against acute APAP poisoning.
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Original Article
  • Kunihiko Yamashita, Shinsuke Shinoda, Saori Hagiwara, Hiroshi Miyazaki ...
    Volume 40 (2015) Issue 6 Pages 843-853
    Released: November 10, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Test Guidelines (TG) adopted the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) as stand-alone skin sensitization test methods. However, unsaturated carbon-carbon double-bond and/or lipid acids afforded false-positive results more frequently in the LLNA compared to those in the GPMT and/or in human subjects. In the current study, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic, fumaric, maleic, and succinic acid and squalene were tested in a modified LLNA with an elicitation phase (LLNA:DAE), and in a direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA) to evaluate their skin-sensitizing potential. Oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic and maleic acid were positive in the LLNA:DAE, of which three, linoleic, linolenic, and maleic acid were positive in the DPRA. Furthermore, the results of the cross-sensitizing tests using four LLNA:DAE-positive chemicals were negative, indicating a chemical-specific elicitation response. In a previous report, the estimated concentration needed to produce a stimulation index of 3 (EC3) of linolenic acid, squalene, and maleic acid in the LLNA was < 10%. Therefore, these chemicals were classified as moderate skin sensitizers in the LLNA. However, the skin-sensitizing potential of all LLNA:DAE-positive chemicals was estimated as weak. These results suggested that oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic, and maleic acid had skin-sensitizing potential, and that the LLNA overestimated the skin-sensitizing potential compared to that estimated by the LLNA:DAE.
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Original Article
  • Masayuki Kimura, Sayaka Mizukami, Yousuke Watanabe, Yasuko Hasegawa-Ba ...
    Volume 40 (2015) Issue 6 Pages 855-871
    Released: November 10, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We aimed to clarify the hepatocarcinogen-specific disruption of cell cycle checkpoint functions and its time course after repeated administration of hepatocarcinogens. Thus, rats were repeatedly administered with hepatocarcinogens (methapyrilene, carbadox and thioacetamide), a marginal hepatocarcinogen (leucomalachite green), hepatocarcinogenic promoters (oxfendazole and β-naphthoflavone) or non-carcinogenic hepatotoxicants (promethazine and acetaminophen) for 7, 28 or 90 days, and the temporal changes in cell proliferation, expression of G1/S and spindle checkpoint-related molecules, and apoptosis were examined using immunohistochemistry and/or real-time RT-PCR analysis. Hepatocarcinogens facilitating cell proliferation at day 28 of administration also facilitated cell proliferation and apoptosis at day 90. Hepatocarcinogen- or hepatocarcinogenic promoter-specific cellular responses were not detected by immunohistochemical single molecule analysis even after 90 days. Expression of Cdkn1a, Mad2l1, Chek1 and Rbl2 mRNA also lacked specificity to hepatocarcinogens or hepatocarcinogenic promoters. In contrast, all hepatocarcinogens and the marginally hepatocarcinogenic leucomalachite green induced Mdm2 upregulation or increase in the number of phosphorylated MDM2+ cells from day 28, irrespective of the lack of cell proliferation facilitation by some compounds. However, different Tp53 expression levels suggest different mechanisms of induction or activation of MDM2 among hepatocarcinogens. On the other hand, hepatocarcinogenic methapyrilene and carbadox downregulated the number of both ubiquitin D+ cells and proliferating cells remaining in M phase at day 28 and/or day 90, irrespective of the lack of cell proliferation facilitation in the latter. These results suggest that hepatocarcinogens disrupt spindle checkpoint function after 28 or 90 days of administration, which may be induced ahead of cell proliferation facilitation.
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Original Article
  • Yumi Abiko, Alvaro Puga, Yoshito Kumagai
    Volume 40 (2015) Issue 6 Pages 873-886
    Released: November 10, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Highly reactive quinone species produced by photooxidation and/or metabolic activation of mono- or bi-aromatic hydrocarbons modulate cellular homeostasis and electrophilic signal transduction pathways through the covalent modification of proteins. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, but not mono- or bi-aromatic hydrocarbons, are well recognized as ligands for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). However, quinone species produced from mono- and bi-aromatic hydrocarbons could potentially cause AhR activation. To clarify the AhR response to mono- and bi-aromatic hydrocarbon quinones, we studied Cyp1a1 (cytochrome P450 1A1) induction and AhR activation by these quinones. We detected Cyp1a1 induction during treatment with quinones in Hepa1c1c7 cells, but not their parent compounds. Nine of the twelve quinones with covalent binding capability for proteins induced Cyp1a1. Cyp1a1 induction mediated by 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ), 1,4-NQ, 1,4-benzoquinone (1,4-BQ) and tert-butyl-1,4-BQ was suppressed by a specific AhR inhibitor and was not observed in c35 cells, which do not have a functional AhR. These quinones stimulated AhR nuclear translocation and interaction with the AhR nuclear translocator. Interestingly, 1,2-NQ covalently modified AhR, which was detected by an immunoprecipitation assay using a specific antibody against 1,2-NQ, resulting in enhancement of xenobiotic responsive element (XRE)-derived luciferase activity and binding of AhR to the Cyp1a1 promoter region. While mono- and bi-aromatic hydrocarbons are generally believed to be poor ligands for AhR and hence unable to induce Cyp1a1, our study suggests that the quinones of these molecules are able to modify AhR and activate the AhR/XRE pathway, thereby inducing Cyp1a1. Since we previously reported that 1,2-NQ and tert-butyl-1,4-BQ also activate NF-E2-related factor 2, it seems likely that some of quinones are bi-functional inducers for phase-I and phase-II reaction of xenobiotics.
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Letter
  • Takashi Toyama, Yumi Abiko, Yuko Katayama, Toshiyuki Kaji, Yoshito Kum ...
    Volume 40 (2015) Issue 6 Pages 887-893
    Released: November 10, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental electrophile that covalently modifies cellular proteins. In this study, we identified proteins that undergo S-mercuration by MeHg. By combining two-dimensional SDS-PAGE, atomic absorption spectrometry and ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS), we revealed that ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) is a target for S-mercuration in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells exposed to MeHg (1 µM, 9 hr). The modification site of UCH-L1 by MeHg was Cys152, as determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. MeHg was shown to inhibit the catalytic activity of recombinant human UCH-L1 in a concentration-dependent manner. Knockdown of UCH-L1 indicated that this enzyme plays a critical role in regulating mono-ubiquitin (monoUb) levels in SH-SY5Y cells and exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to MeHg caused a reduction in the level of monoUb in these cells. These observations suggest that UCH-L1 readily undergoes S-mercuration by MeHg through Cys152 and this covalent modification inhibits UCH-L1, leading to the potential disruption of the maintenance of cellular monoUb levels.
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Letter
  • Jin Li, Dao Li, Chaorong Tie, Ji Wu, Qiong Wu, Qixiong Li
    Volume 40 (2015) Issue 6 Pages 895-900
    Released: November 10, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Cisplatin (CP) is a major antineoplastic drug for the treatment of solid tumors, but it has dose-dependent renal tubular toxicity. Previous studies have shown that induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) by CP may play a role in the renal injury of CP. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between CP-induced toxicity and CYP4A11 expression in human renal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2). 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) is a CYP4A11 metabolite of arachidonic acid that plays an important role in renal injury. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was determined by spectrophotometer. CYP4A11 expression was analyzed by immunocytochemistry. CYP4A11 mRNA and protein expression were evaluated by RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. Results showed that 20-HETE (1, 10, 50 μM), a CYP4A11 metabolite of arachidonic acid, significantly increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in these cells. When CP (10-4 M) and 20-HETE (1, 10, 50 μM) were co-applied to these cells, CP-induced LDH release was significantly exaggerated by 20-HETE. Furthermore, clofibrate, a CYP4A inducer, also increased LDH release in CP-treated cells. In contrast, the CYP4A inhibitor N-Hydrocy-N'-(-4-butyl-2-methylphenyl) formamidine (HET-0016) decreased LDH release in CP-treated cells. Immunocytochemical analysis showed that CYP4A11expression was much stronger in CP-(10-4 M) treated cells than that in clofibrate-treated cells. Further RT-PCR and Western blot analyses demonstrated that CYP4A11 mRNA and protein expression were significantly up-regulated in CP- (10-4 M) treated cells compared to the clofibrate group. The findings of this study indicate that CP is a potent inducer of CYP4A11, and it exerts its toxic functions via the induction of CYP4A11 and 20-HETE generation.
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Original Article
  • Jin-Yong Lee, Maki Tokumoto, Yasuyuki Fujiwara, Masahiko Satoh
    Volume 40 (2015) Issue 6 Pages 901-908
    Released: November 10, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal with a long half-life in humans. It causes disorders of various tissue systems, including the kidney, and is associated with protein aggregation. Our previous study demonstrated Cd-induced suppression of the UBE2D gene family, one of the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme families. However, the precise role of ubiquitin-coding genes in Cd toxicity remains to be understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of Cd on expression of the ubiquitin-coding genes UBB, UBC, UBA80, and UBA52 in HK-2 human proximal tubular cells. Prior to the appearance of Cd toxicity, the UBB, UBC, and UBA80 expression levels increased following Cd treatment. Knockdown of UBB by siRNA transfection significantly decreased Cd cytotoxicity. Notably, Cd induces ubiquitinated protein levels in HK-2 cells, and knockdown of UBB blocked this process. These results suggest that UBB is involved in Cd-induced increase of protein ubiquitination, and that accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins through increased UBB expression may contribute to Cd toxicity in HK-2 cells.
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Letter
  • Yudai Kariyazono, Junki Taura, Yukiko Hattori, Yuji Ishii, Shizuo Nari ...
    Volume 40 (2015) Issue 6 Pages 909-916
    Released: November 10, 2015
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The effects of endocrine disruptors on testicular steroidogenesis in fetal rats were investigated in a study involving in utero exposure. In the major part of this study, pregnant rats at gestational day (GD)15 were given a single oral administration of the test substance, and then the expression of the following mRNAs in GD20 fetuses was determined: testicular steroidogenic acute-regulatory protein (StAR), a cholesterol transporter mediating the rate-limiting step of steroidogenesis, a ß-subunit of pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH), and a regulator of gonadal steroidogenesis. Among the substances tested, only di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) reduced the expression of fetal testicular StAR. The others listed below exhibited little effect on fetal StAR: 2,2’,4,4’-tetrabromodiphenylether, tributyltin chloride, atrazine, permethrin, cadmium chloride (Cd), lead acetate (Pb) and methylmercury (CH3HgOH). None of them, including DEHP, lacked the ability to reduce the expression of pituitary LHß mRNA. The present study also examined the potential of metals as modifiers of fetal steroidogenesis by giving them to pregnant dams in drinking water during GD1 and GD20. Under these conditions, Cd and Pb at a low concentration (0.01 ppm) significantly attenuated the fetal testicular expression of StAR mRNA without a concomitant reduction in LHß. No such effect was detected with CH3HgOH even at 1 ppm. These results suggest that: 1) DEHP, Cd and Pb attenuate the fetal production of sex steroids by directly acting on the testis, and 2) chronic treatment during the entire gestational period is more useful than a single administration for determining the hazardous effect of a suspected endocrine disruptor on fetal steroidogenesis.
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