This study evaluated the effect of sevoflurane anesthesia on neuromuscular blockade with rocuronium in dogs. Six healthy beagle dogs were anesthetized four times with a minimum 14-day washout period. On each occasion, the dogs were administered 1.25-, 1.5-, 1.75-, or 2.0-fold of the individualized minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane and received an infusion of rocuronium (0.5 mg/kg followed by 0.2 mg/kg/h) for 120 min. Neuromuscular function was monitored with acceleromyography and train-of-four (TOF) stimulation of the left hind limb. Time to achieve TOF count 0 (onset time), time from the onset of neuromuscular blockade to the reappearance of TOF count 4 (blockade period), and time from the onset of rocuronium infusion to attaining a 70 or 90% TOF ratio (TOFR70 or TOFR90) were recorded. There were no significant differences in the onset time, blockade period, and plasma rocuronium concentration between the sevoflurane MAC multiples. The TOFR70 and TOFR90 were dose-dependently prolonged with the sevoflurane MAC multiples. There were significant differences in the TOFR70 and TOFR90 between the 1.25 sevoflurane MAC (median: 55 and 77.5 min, respectively) and 1.75 sevoflurane MAC (122.0 and 122.6 min; P=0.020 and P=0.020, respectively), 1.25 sevoflurane MAC and 2.0 sevoflurane MAC (126.0 and 131.4 min; P=0.020 and P=0.020), and 1.5 sevoflurane MAC (97.5 and 121.3 min) and 2.0 sevoflurane MAC (P=0.033 and P=0.032). In dogs, sevoflurane anesthesia produced dose-dependent prolongation of recovery from neuromuscular blockade produced by rocuronium.