2018 年 93 巻 p. 5-16
In this paper, I review the uses of ethnographic methods in journalism and
media studies. Particularly, I examine how we can conduct research on the
globalizing aspects of journalism and media by using ethnography. In doing so,
I look at news production and audience ethnography, which have often used
participant observation as part of their research methods.
First, I discuss how ethnographers use traditional methods to study a single
site. In the case of news production, for example, Tuchman and Gans used
long-term participant observation in order to study newsrooms. In the case of
audience ethnography, Morley used interviews and participant observation,
aiming to understand the social contexts of home television viewing.
Second, I explore how ethnographers then began to use new methods in
order to explore the globalization of culture and society and to overcome meth
odological nationalism. Here, I compare two ethnographic methods: multi-sited
ethnography （MSE）, created by the anthropologist George Marcus, and global
ethnography（ GE） created by the sociologist Michael Burawoy. Then, I explain
how I applied MSE to my research on cultural migrants. This study focuses on
young Japanese who migrate from Tokyo to New York City or London after
being exposed to media images of their destination before leaving Japan.
Finally, I discuss the current situation of ethnography in journalism and media
studies in Japan.