The feature in this volume entitled“ Current Qualitative Methods for Media
and Journalism Studies” comprises four papers. This article explains the aims of
This feature was written in response to a growing sense of crisis concerning
the current state of Mass Communication Studies. One example of the concerns
that exist is that high-definition natural language processing may eventually
undermine the validity of mass-based methods.
In light of this, all of the researchers in this field were required to reinvestigate
ways of developing up-to-date methodologies that are inseparably
linked to resolving each existing methodology’s problems.
To this end, the editorial board asked each author to include in the paper
his/her research history and current methodological proposition so that readers
can understand the process by which the author developed the methodology.
In this paper, I review the uses of ethnographic methods in journalism and
media studies. Particularly, I examine how we can conduct research on the
globalizing aspects of journalism and media by using ethnography. In doing so,
I look at news production and audience ethnography, which have often used
participant observation as part of their research methods.
First, I discuss how ethnographers use traditional methods to study a single
site. In the case of news production, for example, Tuchman and Gans used
long-term participant observation in order to study newsrooms. In the case of
audience ethnography, Morley used interviews and participant observation,
aiming to understand the social contexts of home television viewing.
Second, I explore how ethnographers then began to use new methods in
order to explore the globalization of culture and society and to overcome meth
odological nationalism. Here, I compare two ethnographic methods: multi-sited
ethnography （MSE）, created by the anthropologist George Marcus, and global
ethnography（ GE） created by the sociologist Michael Burawoy. Then, I explain
how I applied MSE to my research on cultural migrants. This study focuses on
young Japanese who migrate from Tokyo to New York City or London after
being exposed to media images of their destination before leaving Japan.
Finally, I discuss the current situation of ethnography in journalism and media
studies in Japan.
This paper attempts to discuss the methodology for media history by considering
the significance and limitations of multi-archival research. For several
decades, much interdisciplinary attention has been paid to multi-archival
research not only in the field of history but also political science, international
relations, and sociology. Multi-archival research became a popular and significant
method because it promoted the declassification of documents in archives
around the world after the end of the Cold War. This popular method has been
applied to the discipline of media history and it has provided a significant key
to opening a new dimension of its history in Japan at home and abroad.
For researchers who intend to conduct research using a multi-archival
approach, this paper aims to provide some information that was acquired
through my own archival research experience. It focuses on the following three
aspects. First, how my research interests spread beyond borders from Japan to
Korea, the U.S., China, the U.K., and so on, including how I recognized the usefulness
and significance of multi-archival research. Second, what we need to be
careful of when attempting to conduct multi-archival research and analyze
archival documents. Third, how we can utilize archives to gather documents
more efficiently. To answer these questions, this paper provides archival information
on the U.S., the ROK, the DPRK, Taiwan and the U.K.
The scope of this paper attempts to contribute to the argument,“ how can
we open a new dimension of media history by utilizing something new or old methods?”
People’s activities on the Internet are becoming digitized, and substantive
analysis methodologies such as quantitative content analysis and network analysis
are developing rapidly. Meanwhile, they cultural anthropology is methodologically
characterized as essentially qualitative, with ethnography at their core.
How can cultural anthropology approach our online activities and our lives in
general with the Internet as a component through the method of ethnography?
It is necessary to fundamentally revisit the conventional methodology built on
the premise of the analog age with regard to ethnography in the context of the
Accordingly, cultural anthropologists who are interested in Internet studies
and communications researchers who engage in an ethnographic approach have
accumulated diverse developments in methodological discussions surrounding
online ethnography, virtual ethnography, digital anthropology, and so on.
Based on the author’s awareness of these issues and the developments in
scientific discussions, has been proposed hybrid ethnography. The aim of this
paper is to clarify the methodological subject of media studies pertaining to the
digital network age based on the research the author conducted in online public
opinion as part of the larger framework of the changes in ethnographical
approaches, while attempting to propose concrete arguments on the methodology
of hybrid ethnography by presenting research examples that include the
elements of: 1. quantitative content analysis, 2. data structure analysis（ various
methods of multivariate analysis）, and 3.（ social） network analysis.
In this paper, I explain the research methods for handling historical data in
the context of media studies. I started by organizing the development process
of media history in Japan, followed by the characteristics of media history of
the 2000s. Finally, in the context of media history research as it relates to sociology,
I explain about the methodologies adopted in “Historical Sociology of the
Advertising Creator”（ 2014） and“ Olympic, Design, Marketing”（ 2017）.
This paper discusses the danger that the BPO, which should be obliged to
act as a bulwark against public authorities intervening in program production,
may threaten the freedom of broadcasting and intimidate broadcasters.
The aim of this paper is to investigate several cases in which TV stations
submitted their reports in order to officially express objections to BPO’s decisions
and to clarify the problems of these decisions and issues that the BPO
Through the examination of four cases that fit the above conditions, some
problematic decisions were revealed which the BRC, one of the BPO committees,
had made. These include one case in which the BRC pointed out ethical
problems in TV programs based on a misunderstanding of the facts and mistaken
interpretations by the BRC, and another case in which they concluded
that human rights were violated based on information that had not been broadcasted.
The BRC should have an obligation to examine factual information, conduct
verification, clarify the standards of judgment, share their understanding of
broadcasting ethics with TV stations, in order to make equal and fair judgments
to regain the trust of broadcasters.
The BPO should take these BRC-related problems seriously and become a
true guardian of the freedom of broadcasting, defending the media from the
authorities that intend to intervene in the broadcasting industry.
This thesis investigates how the news and documentary program, “NNN
Document,” has reported the nuclear problem.
This is important because previous studies have not clarified regional differences
and diachronic changes in programs produced by local broadcasting
stations that represent how people feel where nuclear power stations were
Seventy-eight documentaries about nuclear power from“ NNN Document,”
which is produced by 29 local broadcasting stations of the NTV group, were
analyzed. These sources were examined by analyzing changes in the way in
which the stations represented people statements.
This research discovered the following. From 1970 until the Chernobyl
disaster, many different people appeared in the documentaries, but after the
Chernobyl disaster, the perspective of people living in areas suffering radiation
damage and depopulated areas close to nuclear power stations came to the
forefront. During the 2000’s, the number of documentaries about nuclear power
decreased sharply. After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, the lives of
the refugees were portrayed from the point of view of their places of refuge.
Thus, it is shown how “NNN Document” has come to more closely represent
the opinions of citizens in the news about nuclear power generation.
This study aims to clarify the transition of collective memory and recognition
about the Great Kanto Earthquake through the exploration of the narratives
of an academic figure. In a time when the collective memory of this past disaster
has been fading, this report made it clear how the opinion of the intellectual has
changed and why. The intellectual in question is Ikutaro Shimizu, who experienced
the Great Kanto Earthquake. Known as a prominent writer, he continued
to express his opinion on the Great Kanto Earthquake. He described himself an
“après un tremblement de terre”（ post-earthquake） writer, playing on words of
the après guerre（ post-war） generation. After the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake
and its aftermath, Shimizu’s opinion on the disaster has drawn public
attention again. The aim of this report is to trace the manner in which Shimizu
talked about the disaster and how it changed.
Before the end of the Second World War, Shimizu rarely discussed the
Great Kanto Earthquake. In the days after the Second World War, he began to
write essays on the huge earthquake. In other words, he developed his own
interpretation of the earthquake in contrast with his war experience. As he recognized
that the Great Kanto Earthquake had been downplayed by society at
that time, he wrote about the Earthquake over and over as one of his important
personal experiences. Although he attempted to evoke collective remembrance
of the Earthquake in 1960, he quit writing about the Earthquake after all.
It is in and after 1970 that his narrative seemed to change. He came to deal
with the Great Kanto Earthquake as a matter of society or the nation, not as an
unforgettable personal event. He modified his opinion on the Earthquake in line
with the collective memory shared with people of the same period. This report
examines Shimizu’s argument on the Earthquake and its changes, and points
out the connection between personal memories and collective memory.