2023 Volume 11 Pages 76-92
The presence of heartwood is one of the most important parameters in economic value that can affect the final use of wood. For construction materials, the presence of a large heartwood is very necessary, considering this will have a positive effect on the basic properties of the wood. Meanwhile, its heartwood proportion has a negative impact on the quality of pulp and paper. Therefore, this study aims to review the methods of calculating the area of the heartwood by using suitable heartwood measurement methods for better stand management and selection of raw materials in the industry. The results of the review showed that non-destructive methods were developed to measure the area of heartwood-sapwood such as computer tomography (CT-image), electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), x-ray densitometry, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), so far. This is different from the destructive methods that are commonly used for visual inspection of wood color and anatomical features. During the selection of methods, the factors to be considered include cost, time, tree damage, number of samples, and efficiency in applying the methods. The visual inspection is the best option for determining the area of heartwood and sapwood. But, when the heartwood and sapwood boundaries color is unclear, chemical indicators can be performed. In addition, the ERT method can be the second alternative for tropics species. Furthermore, the method used in a study of the presence of heartwood depends on the five limiting factors mentioned previously.