Reviews in Agricultural Science
Online ISSN : 2187-090X
Technological Advances in Soil Penetration Resistance Measurement and Prediction Algorithms
Mustafa Ahmed Jalal Al-SammarraieHasan Kırılmaz
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2023 Volume 11 Pages 93-105


Soil compaction is one of the most harmful elements affecting soil structure, limiting plant growth and agricultural productivity. It is crucial to assess the degree of soil penetration resistance to discover solutions to the harmful consequences of compaction. In order to obtain the appropriate value, using soil cone penetration requires time and labor-intensive measurements. Currently, satellite technologies, electronic measurement control systems, and computer software help to measure soil penetration resistance quickly and easily within the precision agriculture applications approach. The quantitative relationships between soil properties and the factors affecting their diversity contribute to digital soil mapping. Digital soil maps use machine learning algorithms to determine the above relationship. Algorithms include multiple linear regression (MLR), k-nearest neighbors (KNN), support vector regression (SVR), cubist, random forest (RF), and artificial neural networks (ANN). Machine learning made it possible to predict soil penetration resistance from huge sets of environmental data obtained from onboard sensors on satellites and other sources to produce digital soil maps based on classification and slope, but whose output must be verified if they are to be trusted. This review presents soil penetration resistance measurement systems, new technological developments in measurement systems, and the contribution of precision agriculture techniques and machine learning algorithms to soil penetration resistance measurement and prediction.

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© 2023 The Uniited Graduate Schools of Agricultural Sciences, Japan
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