The relevance of this study is due to the fact that for the effective functioning of the enterprise in the current conditions of a dynamic and rapidly changing business environment in the long term, the requirement to develop new approaches to planning the enterprise's activities is highlighted. The purpose of the article is to analyse and identify trends in the development of agriculture. Basic research methods: analysis, regression analysis, method of forecasting, valuation method. Using the example of the cotton subcomplex, the price structure of raw cotton in the agro-industrial complex system is considered with the use of a paired regression analysis of price-forming factors. Based on the analysis, the reflection of the specific features of the agricultural sector in strategic planning is systematised. The problems of systematisation of the specific features of strategic planning in agricultural production have been investigated, a flowchart of a methodology for assessing the vertical content correspondence of strategies of different levels and problem areas of strategic planning has been drawn up, and a targeted scale was compiled for assessing the coefficient of the possibility of self-sufficiency growth in strategic planning. The features of agro-industrial production have been identified, which significantly impact the strategic planning process. The authors concluded that in order to solve the problematic trends in agricultural development, it is necessary to modernize agricultural production and the strategic planning process for agricultural development, which will reflect its development in the long term. The findings of this study can be used by specialised professionals for further study of the specifics of strategic planning in agricultural production, creating and adjusting of state target programs for the development of the agriculture industry.
Growing industrialization and urbanization are seriously polluting the environment with hazardous heavy metals. Heavy metal pollution has caused major consequences on human health and the environment on a global level. Economically effective and environmentally friendly methodologies and technologies are utilized globally to remediate heavy metal-contaminated soils and wastewater. Phytoremediation is one of the potential technologies for the in-site treatment of heavy metal-contaminated soil and water. Over 163 plant species with the ability of metal concentration and tolerance have been discovered in the world as possible phytoremediators. Among the plant species used for phytoremediation, Cyprus rotundus is a safe and inexpensive phytoremediation agent that has a high capacity to accumulate heavy metals in its plant parts. This review provides a general overview of the phytoremediation potential of Cyperus rotundus through reviewing relevant originally published research articles. For the study, a literature survey was conducted by using articles from top academic research databases including ScienceDirect, JSTOR, Google Scholar, and PubMed. A total number of 71 originally published articles related to phytoremediation and heavy metal phytoremediation of Cyperus rotundus were selected for the review. According to previous studies, Cyperus rotundus is capable of extracting and accumulating As, Cd, Pb, Rb, Sn, and Zn in its roots and shoots when the soil is highly polluted with the aforementioned heavy metals. Moreover, Cypreus rotundus indicate a considerable value of bioconcentration factors and translocation factors to different heavy metals, whereas it emphasizes the possible remediation of heavy metals through this plant species. Consequently, Cyperus rotundus could be identified as a possible hyperaccumulator and Phytostabilizer for most heavy metals for upcoming phytoremediation studies.
The pressure on water resources is due to different factors that affect agricultural development for food security. Large agricultural lands are not irrigated because of limited water resources and poor irrigation water management. This results in poor crop water productivity. Therefore, this paper focused on finding alternative techniques of irrigation water management to solve the problems of poor irrigation water management for crop water productivity for diverse crop species. Although there are different options for saving and managing irrigation water to improve crop water productivity, deficit irrigation in different mechanisms, drip irrigation, pitcher irrigation and surface mulch were some of the innovative techniques of irrigation water management. Accordingly, stage-wise deficit irrigation was better than deficit irrigation throughout the growing season for improving yield productivity. Considering the furrow irrigation system, alternate furrow irrigation is better to save water and improve crop water productivity than fixed furrow irrigation. On the other hand, drip irrigation is better performed to improve crop water productivity than conventional irrigation systems. Furthermore, pitcher irrigation system and deficit irrigation with mulch had better performance than conventional furrow irrigation to save irrigation water and improve crop water productivity. Therefore, the alternative techniques of irrigation water management to improve crop water productivity are the best option for food security in areas of water scarcity. Particularly, deficit irrigation, alternate irrigation, drip irrigation with mulching and pitcher irrigation are alternatively recommended for implementation in the areas of water scarcity for sustainable development.
The effort of electrifying Sarawak also comes with challenges mainly caused by geographic and demographic factors. Sarawak’s population scatters over a wide spatial area, where families inhabit small villages located in areas of challenging terrains and thick jungles. As a result, electrification through grid connection becomes infeasible and uneconomic. Biogas has immense potential to contribute to energy supply, especially in rural areas. It not only reduces waste but can also be used in generating electricity and subsequently reduces the dependency on fossil fuels. Approximately 993,000 hectares of Sarawak land were planted with oil palm in 2019. The predicted biogas generation from palm oil mill effluent (POME) could create enough electricity to power nearly 2 million rural Sarawak households, in which the Sarawak population in 2020 was 2.9 million. The lagoon system and continuous stirred tank reactor are common technologies used in biogas production. Other technologies used in biogas production are the fixed dome reactor from the Chinese model and the floating dome reactor from the Indian model. The standard technology involves the combustion of biogas in a heat engine called an internal combustion engine to produce heat to generate steam that drives a turbine for electricity generation. This work studied a new biogas utilisation method, fuel cell technology. Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) has high efficiency of up to 60% and is generally more prominent than conventional combustion of biogas in a gas engine to generate electricity. With the continual development of biogas fuel cells, a great prospect is predicted for rural areas of Sarawak in biogas production and utilisation. Thus, biogas could contribute a larger role in contributing to a higher renewable energy mix and rural electrification in Sarawak.
The presence of heartwood is one of the most important parameters in economic value that can affect the final use of wood. For construction materials, the presence of a large heartwood is very necessary, considering this will have a positive effect on the basic properties of the wood. Meanwhile, its heartwood proportion has a negative impact on the quality of pulp and paper. Therefore, this study aims to review the methods of calculating the area of the heartwood by using suitable heartwood measurement methods for better stand management and selection of raw materials in the industry. The results of the review showed that non-destructive methods were developed to measure the area of heartwood-sapwood such as computer tomography (CT-image), electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), x-ray densitometry, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), so far. This is different from the destructive methods that are commonly used for visual inspection of wood color and anatomical features. During the selection of methods, the factors to be considered include cost, time, tree damage, number of samples, and efficiency in applying the methods. The visual inspection is the best option for determining the area of heartwood and sapwood. But, when the heartwood and sapwood boundaries color is unclear, chemical indicators can be performed. In addition, the ERT method can be the second alternative for tropics species. Furthermore, the method used in a study of the presence of heartwood depends on the five limiting factors mentioned previously.
Soil compaction is one of the most harmful elements affecting soil structure, limiting plant growth and agricultural productivity. It is crucial to assess the degree of soil penetration resistance to discover solutions to the harmful consequences of compaction. In order to obtain the appropriate value, using soil cone penetration requires time and labor-intensive measurements. Currently, satellite technologies, electronic measurement control systems, and computer software help to measure soil penetration resistance quickly and easily within the precision agriculture applications approach. The quantitative relationships between soil properties and the factors affecting their diversity contribute to digital soil mapping. Digital soil maps use machine learning algorithms to determine the above relationship. Algorithms include multiple linear regression (MLR), k-nearest neighbors (KNN), support vector regression (SVR), cubist, random forest (RF), and artificial neural networks (ANN). Machine learning made it possible to predict soil penetration resistance from huge sets of environmental data obtained from onboard sensors on satellites and other sources to produce digital soil maps based on classification and slope, but whose output must be verified if they are to be trusted. This review presents soil penetration resistance measurement systems, new technological developments in measurement systems, and the contribution of precision agriculture techniques and machine learning algorithms to soil penetration resistance measurement and prediction.
Helleborus is a small genus of the Ranunculaceae family and comprises about 19 species of herbaceous perennials. These perennial plants have a long flowering period and are mainly evergreen. Helleborus cultivars, including H. niger (commonly called Christmas rose), are a highlight in winter gardens and bloom from winter until early spring, at a time when few other flowers are in bloom. Taxonomy of the genus Helleborus was previously based only on morphological characteristics; however, molecular studies have been done in the past 20 years and further such research will provide comprehensive genetic information. This genus has a rich and diverse group of flower shapes. This review provides a general introduction to the genus Helleborus, focusing on the two different taxonomic methods: morphological and molecular. Several molecular tools used for phylogenetic studies are summarized and evaluated for their applicability in future studies of Helleborus taxonomy.
Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a multi-million-dollar industry in several temperate countries. In South and Southeast Asian region, it remains a neglected and underutilised due to several legal, political, and cultural barriers. Therefore, very limited research has been done on value chain of hemp in this region. Nevertheless, as discussions are ongoing on the legalization of hemp in some of the countries in the region, interest in research and development of hemp is growing. The objective of this review is to identify what has been done on hemp in the region and outline the potentials and challenges in adopting hemp as an industrial crop in tropical South and Southeast Asia. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were used to select and review research articles. Out of the 12,210 studies, 36 were selected for review and analysis. The results demonstrate the potential of hemp in the South and Southeast Asian region in terms of genetic diversity, growth habits, environmental and health benefits, and value-added products. To motivate the commercial cultivation, several key aspects were identified that includes development of region/location specific cultivars, introduction of site/cultivar specific management practices and development of proper market facilities. The review concludes that hemp can be a potential candidate for crop diversification across South and Southeast Asia.
Radiofrequency radiation effects the living things including humans and plants, have recently gained considerable attention. An important factor in the expansion of radiofrequency radiations is the globalization of telecommunications networks. Mobile phone towers in Pakistan have multiplied by a large number in the last few years. Increases in mobile tower construction and tower sharing pose a threat to local flora and fauna in both urban and rural locations. Few scientists searched; how mobile phone emitted radiations affect the yield of few crops. Research on how mobile radiofrequency radiations affect molecular structure, plant cell biology, ecology and biochemical composition is compiled in the current article. Furthermore, the present study sheds light on how electromagnetic radiation from 2G and 3G cells phone affects the germination process of important staple crops. New research reveals how radiofrequency radiation affects plant ecosystems’ morphological and physiological properties. This review also emphasizes the importance of further collective and field-based empirical studies to determine the effect of mobile phone radiations on numerous plant species, which is necessary for developing effective preventative and mitigating measures.
Probiotics are beneficial live microorganisms because they provide health benefits to the host after being consumed in sufficient amounts, primarily by increasing the proliferation of native digestive microflora. Hypercholesterolemia is a condition in which cholesterol serum concentration is elevated significantly (exceeds 200 mg/dL). Hypercholesterolemia is characterized by high plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and low plasma concentration of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). This review aims to examine the mechanism of action of probiotics in preventing the risk of hypercholesterolemia and reducing LDL cholesterol levels in the human body. The mechanism of cholesterol-lowering effect of probiotic bacteria can be classified into four basic principles such as 1) the conversion of cholesterol to coprostanol, 2) the deconjugation of cholesterol by probiotics’ bile salt hydrolase enzyme, 3) the alteration of protein expression related to cholesterol synthesis, and 4) the production of Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) by probiotics. Cholesterol converted to coprostanol is not absorbed by the small intestine and is directly excreted with the feces. The deconjugated cholesterol is easily precipitated and thus not absorbed by the small intestine. It also induces the assimilation of cholesterol into the probiotic membrane. Finally, the SCFAs, produced by probiotics fermentation within host digestive tract, can upregulate the synthesis of HDL apolipoprotein.
Reproductive efficiency is a crucial factor in the economic viability of small ruminant exploitation. In spite of this, few producers utilize the available reproductive technologies related to hormonal interaction, which are vital for the economic sustainability of their operations. Therefore, this review aimed to investigate the potential effects of reproductive alterations and hormone interactions during pregnancy and lactation and to determine advanced technologies for sheep reproduction. In the modern era, breeding techniques, nutrition, reproduction, and management techniques are used to produce more and better quality livestock. A combination of estrous synchronization and genetic improvements for small ruminants is needed to increase reproduction efficiency, productivity, and quality. A proper match between sheep breeds and nutritional and production environments will allow animals to express their genetic potential for enhanced production. In sheep, little information is available regarding the reproductive physiology during pregnancy and lactation. The availability of such information would enhance sheep production and reduce economic losses through improved dam performance and lamb survival. Understanding ewe reproductive physiology during pregnancy and lactation is essential for flock managers to determine their reproductive potential. Using advanced reproductive technologies could enhance the productivity of sheep, which are the most abundant ruminant livestock species.
Employment of people with disabilities in the agricultural sector has an important role to play in solving labor shortages in the agricultural sector and in promoting employment of people with disabilities in the welfare sector. This review summarizes the development process and overall information on agricultural and welfare initiatives in Japan, and examines future possibilities and challenges by comparing them with social agricultural initiatives overseas. In the United States, agricultural support for people with disabilities is provided in collaboration with state governments and state universities such as AgrAbility. In the Netherlands, care farms are focusing on psychotherapy and exercise training for the disabled and elderly. In Italy, there are many examples of social agriculture initiatives in which socially vulnerable people participate in agricultural activities to improve their health and well-being. In Japan, the participation of people with disabilities in agriculture is attracting attention as a means of providing employment opportunities for people with disabilities and as bearers of agriculture. There are various forms of cooperation between agriculture and welfare, including “direct employment”, “welfare completion”, “inter-group cooperation”, and “intra-group cooperation”. When people with disabilities participate in agricultural activities through any of these types of partnerships, there are issues such as problems that arise when welfare facilities enter the agriculture, understanding of people with disabilities by those involved in agriculture, burdens on the agricultural side to create a working environment for people with disabilities, and lack of support systems such as government for agricultural-food welfare partnerships. Another issue is the expansion of partnership between agriculture and welfare. In order to expand the partnership, there is a lack of human resources and networks that are well versed in both agriculture and welfare.
Chlorophyll and carotenoid are the main pigments that are responsible for coloration of citrus fruit. The changes in their contents are related to the development stage in citrus fruit. During fruit maturation, carotenoids are massively accumulated in the flavedo and juice sacs, while the chlorophyll contents decreased rapidly. In contrast, the increase of chlorophyll content and decrease of carotenoid contents are observed in the fruit during regreening process. In addition, plant hormones and environmental conditions play important roles in the regulation of color development and the changes of chlorophyll and carotenoid contents in citrus fruit. In this review, we summarized the changes in chlorophyll and carotenoid contents in the flavedo and juice sacs of citrus fruit during fruit maturation and regreening process. Current understanding on the molecular mechanisms that regulated the chlorophyll and carotenoid metabolisms in citrus fruit are discussed. Moreover, the effects of plant hormones and environmental conditions on chlorophyll and carotenoid accumulation are also presented in this review.
The stratified British sheep production system is a three-tier production system that includes the hill, the upland, and the lowland subsystems. In the hills, pure-breed ewes are kept, and draft five-year ewes are brought down to the uplands where they can still have a couple of years of productive life. In the uplands, the hill ewes are mated with an upland sire. This first cross brings together hardiness, and mothering abilities to produce dams of the Prime Lamb. These are brought further down to the Lowlands where they are mated to a Terminal Sire to produce the Prime Lamb. The system takes advantage of maternal and individual heterosis and complementarity of breeds. The system marked the British sheep industry of the 20th century, however, the new challenges faced by the industry may end this unique production system. The objective of this revision is to construct a single document easily accessible to scholars explaining the Stratified British Sheep Production System.
Varieties of proteins are induced in livestock when exposed to environmental stress, among them are heat shock proteins (HSPs). HSPs are proteins that provide antioxidant protection in cells as well as thermotolerance. They function as chaperones, helping to fold, unfold, and refold stress-denatured proteins. Further, HSPs represent one of the most important physiological parameters for thermotolerance in livestock. This review aims to highlight the importance of heat shock protein 70 in livestock performance under heat stress. HSP types and functions are reviewed briefly with a focus on HSP70. Furthermore, this review examines the relationship between HSP70 and thermal adaptation to heat stress. Also discussed is the correlation of a high concentration of HSP70 with improved performance in livestock. HSP70 can improve animal performance by serving as a crucial factor in the adaptation process for livestock. Identifying and utilizing thermotolerant genotypes is imperative for improving livestock productivity and reproduction. For this reason, highlighting the importance of HSP70 for increasing livestock performance is valuable, and further molecular studies are necessary to determine their effectiveness.
The yolk sac is a pouch that envelopes the yolk. In birds and reptiles, it is a large extraembryonic membrane throughout the embryonic period. It supports all stages of embryonic development by supplying the embryo with nutrients stored in the yolk. The yolk is absorbed by the embryo before it hatches, so that in birds, for example, it cannot be observed unless the egg is artificially cracked. In many mammalian species, the yolk sac is a temporary structure, which in humans, for example, regresses by about 15 weeks of gestation. For these reasons, the yolk sac may be considered a mere nutrient-filled sac in birds and an empty, vestigial sac in mammals and has been received less attention than other organs such as the placenta and liver. However, the yolk sac plays a crucial role in development as an extraembryonic organ that absorbs, metabolizes and distributes nutrients essential for embryonic development, contributes to early hematopoiesis and secretes proteins and growth factors necessary for embryonic growth. In this review, we summarize the studies to date and provide perspective on the function of the yolk sac, mainly focusing on avian and mammalian species.
Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] synthesize cyanogenic glycoside known as dhurrin. Fresh vegetative sorghum will rapidly liberate hydrogen cyanide from dhurrin upon disruption of cells in which they are stored in the plant tissue. Dhurrin production has been reported in Sudan grass (Sorghum sudanense), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers) and Columbus grass (Sorghum almum). It is synthesized from amino acid tyrosine by the sequential action of two cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP79A1 and CYP71E1). Dhurrin is believed to play a role in defense against pathogens, insect pests, herbivores and in regulation of metabolic processes. The metabolic processes highlighted in this review are those associated with plant growth and development and regulation of germination. It appears that dhurrin production in sorghum could be developmentally and environmentally regulated and controlled at the transcriptional level. This review focuses on dhurrin synthesis pathway, roles in sorghum, the main signaling molecule and research gaps.
The increased animal production in recent decades has increased manure production, which has become a significant source of agricultural waste. Although the abundant nutrient content in manure has the potential to be used as an alternative fertilizer, its natural decomposition process will be harmful to the environment. Composting and using manure as organic fertilizer have an adverse effect on the environment, as manure emits CO2, CH4, and N2O, which are harmful to the environment. Converting this animal waste into biochar through pyrolysis might be a better way to apply it to the soil. We reviewed papers to determine the potential of agricultural waste biochar, focusing on animal waste biochar, to combat soil quality degradation and mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Due to the scarcity of animal waste biochar information, some discussions are based on other agricultural waste types, mainly rice hull and corncob biochar. Applying biochar has been proven to be a suitable method for improving soil quality, forage productivity and reducing GHG emissions. More detailed research is needed to evaluate the potential of animal waste biochar in this regard.