2007 年 5 巻 2 号 p. 2_51-2_60
Many past studies on climate policy have pointed out that scientists appealed global change problems to policy makers for the first time in 1985 in Villach, and the recommendation to address setting the country's reduction targets at the Toronto Conference in 1988 introduced for the first time the climate policy of developed countries. And by the end of the Cold War, many politicians pushed climate policy as the next agenda for international policies. In this context, it is said that "Science has conducted policy", and "Political will of politicians made climate policy." When and how has climate policy itself been created? All policies have their "policy cycle" which consists of "problem perception", "agenda setting", "policy formulation", "decision making", "implementation", "evaluation"and "termination." In this thesis, we inspect the creation process of climate policy from "problem perception" to "policy formulation," "decision making", and reference governmental documents. "Problem perception" of climate change, caused by anthropological global warming, started in 1970 by the government of the United States. "Global 2000" which was researched and published by the United States government in 1980, has many effects in developing the "Problem perception" of other countries, including Japan. The Japanese government (Environment Agency) established a committee on global environmental problems in 1980. The "problem perception" phase started ten years later in Japan than in the United States. The Declaration of the United Nations in 1982 in Nairobi introduced "problem perception" in the United Nations. The idea of climate policy consists of "precautionary environment policy," which was introduced by OECD in 1979 and "sustainable development," which proposed by Brundtland Commission in 1987. Finally, "policy formulation" and "decision making" has been done by many developed countries without the United States setting its own CO2 reduction targets in 1990.