1992 年 9 巻 p. 1-15
In the religious world today, there are two global movements of enormous vitality. One is conservative Islam, the other conservative Protestantism, notably Pentecostalism. Since Iranian revolution a good deal of attention has been paid to the former, but the latter remains ignored even by the people in Europe and in North America.
The explosion of Pentecostalism in Latin America, especially in Brazil, still widely regarded as the largest Roman Catholic country, is the most dramatic case. But in Brazil Pentecostalism has two rivals; Umbanda of Afro-Brazilian religion and the base-communities within Catholicism. They expanded alongside Pentecostalism over roughly the same time-span of modernization, industrialization and urbanization. Comparing the history and contemporary situation of these three groups, I conclude that, while Pentecostals are conservative, Umbandistas are innovative and members of base-communities are progressive.
Needless to say, the phenomena vary from country to country both in its religious characteristics and social consequences. At the same time there are striking similarities everywhere. This essay deals with Brazil only and other countries in Latin America, South Korea and South Africa are omitted, because I believe Brazil is a typical case. Spiritual communications of healings and tongues (glossolalia) and other rituals will be treated in my next essay.