宗教哲学研究
Online ISSN : 2424-1865
Print ISSN : 0289-7105
ISSN-L : 0289-7105
9 巻
選択された号の論文の10件中1~10を表示しています
原著論文
  • ブラジルを事例として
    藤田 富雄
    原稿種別: 原著論文
    1992 年 9 巻 p. 1-15
    発行日: 1992年
    公開日: 2018/03/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    In the religious world today, there are two global movements of enormous vitality. One is conservative Islam, the other conservative Protestantism, notably Pentecostalism. Since Iranian revolution a good deal of attention has been paid to the former, but the latter remains ignored even by the people in Europe and in North America.
    The explosion of Pentecostalism in Latin America, especially in Brazil, still widely regarded as the largest Roman Catholic country, is the most dramatic case. But in Brazil Pentecostalism has two rivals; Umbanda of Afro-Brazilian religion and the base-communities within Catholicism. They expanded alongside Pentecostalism over roughly the same time-span of modernization, industrialization and urbanization. Comparing the history and contemporary situation of these three groups, I conclude that, while Pentecostals are conservative, Umbandistas are innovative and members of base-communities are progressive.
    Needless to say, the phenomena vary from country to country both in its religious characteristics and social consequences. At the same time there are striking similarities everywhere. This essay deals with Brazil only and other countries in Latin America, South Korea and South Africa are omitted, because I believe Brazil is a typical case. Spiritual communications of healings and tongues (glossolalia) and other rituals will be treated in my next essay.
  • 山本 邦子
    原稿種別: 原著論文
    1992 年 9 巻 p. 16-29
    発行日: 1992年
    公開日: 2018/03/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    Es scheint mir, daß die Frage, was das Alter ist, bisher in der Religionsphilosophie geringgeschätzt wurde, obwohl der Tod das zentrale Problem ist.
    Platon definiert das Alter als „den Verfall der Lebewesen, der aus dem Verlauf der Zeit hervorgeht“. Das bedeutet die körperliche Schwäche.
    Kierkegaard hält es für wichtiger, daß ein Mensch in der Bedeutung der Ewigkeit älter wird, das heißt, daß er aus eigenem Entschluß ein Christ wird und ein Christ bleibt. Deshalb denkt Kierkegaard, daß mit dem Schuldbewußtsein ein Mensch im Jünglingsalter und in der Reifezeit ein alter Mensch wird.
    Im Rückblick auf seine Kindheit wiederholt Kierkegaard immer wieder, daß er als Kind schon ein alter Mann war, weil ihm sein alter Vater, der vor Schuldbewußtsein von einer tiefen Schwermut ergriffen war, mittels eines Bildes des Gekreuzigten die Christenlehre aufzwang. Dieses Alter Kierkegaards ist also das gegebene Alter.
    Für Zeami, in dessen Leben das Noh-Spiel die wichtigste Rolle spielt, dagegen ist die körperliche Schwäche ein großes Problem. Besonders später, als er selbst immer älter wurde, nahm er die körperliche Schwäche positiv auf und betonte, ein alter Spieler solle geistig mit der „Gelassenheit“ spielen und dies solle durch eine Übung angestrebt werden, die immer wieder zum jeweiligen ursprünglichen Gefühl—vor allem zum ursprünglichen Gefühl des Alters—zurückkehren läßt.
    Die obengenannten verschiedenen Aspekte des Alters zeigen die verschiedenen Beziehungen zwischen dem Körperlichen und dem Geistigen.
  • 棚次 正和
    原稿種別: 原著論文
    1992 年 9 巻 p. 30-50
    発行日: 1992年
    公開日: 2018/03/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    The position of P. Tillich’s theology is symbolically shown by the expression “on the boundary.” His theological thought gains its depth and width, in his standing on the several boundaries between ‘theology and philosophy,’ ‘church and society,’ and ‘religion and culture,’ etc. According to his book Dynamics of Faith (1957), faith is defined as the ultimate concern. Faith should not be considered only as a cognitive function nor as an emotional action, but is the most centered act of the human mind.
    In the act of faith, what is the source of this act is present beyond the cleavage of subject and object. Tillich understands that the act of faith is derived from the position of being human; namely, one’s standing between one’s finitude and one’s potential infinity, and from there necessarily come doubts, distortions and symbols that appear in the act of faith.
    Tillich supposes that there are at least two types of faith, among the many forms of living faith. One is the ‘ontological type’ as the presence of the holy here and now, and the other is the ‘moral type,’ in which the holy is the judgment over everything that is. The former is related to the holiness of being, and the latter to the holiness of what ought to be. The dynamics of faith within and between the religions are largely determined by these two types, their interdependence and their conflicts.
    It seems that the diversity of faith denies the claim of truth in the act of faith. This is what has been called the matter of ‘faith and reason.’ Tillich suggests that, if reason is regarded as the meaningful structure of mind and reality, not as a technical tool, reason is the precondition of faith; faith is the act in which reason reaches ecstatically beyond itself. One criterion of the truth of faith is whether its symbols are alive or not, and the other criterion is that symbols express the ultimate which is really ultimate, not idolatrous.
    Through the encounter of the world religions and dialogues with them, Tillich’s theology is led to put itself in an open field of spirituality. To take some examples, he searches of a direction of Christianity to negating itself as a particular religion and realizing its true universalism, and intends to apply the method used in studies of the history of religions to systematic theology.
  • 梅原 久美子
    原稿種別: 原著論文
    1992 年 9 巻 p. 51-64
    発行日: 1992年
    公開日: 2018/03/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    Augustine interpreted Genesis, 2, 2-3 from various angles in his “De genesi ad litteram.” The process of the interpretation is so complicated that we cannot grasp his intention at a glance. This article intends to clarify the relation between allegorical meaning and literal meanings of God’s rest.
    At first, Augustine interpreted God’s rest in a perfect allegorical way, that is, man’s eschatological rest in God. Secondly, his efforts are concentrated on literal meanings, namely, God’s government over creatures and God’s eternal beatitude. But in the course of investigation about literal meanings, Augustine made references to several allegorical meanings. It seems a little strange. How can we grasp his intention?
    The clue to the solution of this problem is in the relation between allegorical meanings and literal meanings. Augustine’s allegorical interpretation includes typological interpretation. Typological interpretation of the Old Testament is based upon historical meanings, and at the same time, it guides men to future meanings, which are realized or promised in the New Testament. The allegorical interpretation of God’s rest is also a typological interpretation. Therefore, it is based upon historical, literal meanings on the one side, and it can signify future, eschatological meanings on the other side.
    Conclusion: Augustine’s manifold interpretations of God’s rest are divided into three levels of meaning. The deepest level is God’s eternal beatitude, and on this deepest level of meaning, man can understand creation as God’s gracious works. Out of this gracious work develops God’s government over creatures as Conservation in general, but especially, over man as God’s consideration for man’s salvation, that is soteriological level of meaning. The aim of this consideration is man’s ultimate rest in God, that is, eschatological level of meaning.
    God’s will, which is found in creation as God’s gracious work, penetrates into every level of meaning. In this way, Augustine’s interpretations of God’s rest are extended to soteriological and eschatological dimensions.
  • 女性論の立場からの一考察
    江口 みりあむ
    原稿種別: 原著論文
    1992 年 9 巻 p. 65-77
    発行日: 1992年
    公開日: 2018/03/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    Buber believed that the sickness of western society, which gave rise to the horrors of two world wars, had its roots in the separation of the holy from everyday life. He saw the possibility of healing in the Hasidic idea of hallowing every act and relationship by dedicating all of life to God. Although he used various modes of expression to transmit this message, his consistent emphasis on true mutual relationship reflected his belief that we meet God, or ‘being’, or ‘The Eternal You,’ only through our interactions with our fellow creatures in the concreteness of daily life.
    Buber’s thought can be seen as the meeting point of two historical processes. One was the separation of the holy from the secular, a process which began thousands of years ago and increased in momentum during the last few centuries. This phenomenon was closely related to the exclusion of women from religious, economic and political roles. The other process was the history of the Jewish people, whose religion emphasized the hallowing of daily life. This tradition was manifested in the life and thought of the Hasidic communities of eastern Europe.
  • 杉村 靖彦
    原稿種別: 原著論文
    1992 年 9 巻 p. 78-91
    発行日: 1992年
    公開日: 2018/03/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    Le but de cet article est d’éclaircir le thème du désir dans la philosophie de Paul Ricoeur entre 1950 et 1969, période qui va de “la philosophie de la volonté” à sa réflexion sur l’herméneutique des symboles. Le problème du désir possède dans la pensée de Paul Ricoeur une importance cachée, car, en étant liée à l’idée de réflexion comme appropriation d’un “désir d’être,” d’un “effort pour exister,” son herméneutique prend appui sur la présupposition qu’un désir ou effort humain tend par nature à se diriger vers l’être “adéquat.” Notre tâche consiste à demander quel est le contenu philosophique de ce thème du désir.
    En premier lieu, à l’époque de “la philosophie de la volonté,” Ricoeur montre par le moyen de la description phénoménologique que le désir est toujours médiatisé par l’imagination. Ce n’est qu’après coup, en faisant appel à la “requête d’estime” comme mobile du désir, que Ricoeur cherche dans ce désir “l’affirmation originaire” qui pourrait dépasser l’égotisme de chaque individu.
    Ensuite dans son Essai sur Freud, le thème du désir chez Ricoeur confronté à la notion freudienne, est montré plus concrètement dans l’idée de la réflexion en tant que “dialectique de l’archéologie et de la téléologie.” C’est à ce point que Ricoeur est conduit à penser comme Freud, le désir comme radical et irréductible à la conscience ; mais en même temps il trouve dans le désir une “aptitude à la progression” au travers des négations médiatrices, perspective que lui a suggéré la dialectique téléologique du désir chez Hegel.
    De ceci, nous pouvons conclure que cette “aptitude à la progression” constitue le fond de la pensée ricoeurienne du désir qui s’exprime dans les formules de “désir d’être” ou “effort pour exister.” L’herméneutique de Ricoeur exige cette réflexion sur le désir ; de même que toute problématique du désir demande une herméneutique.
  • 松田 美佳
    原稿種別: 原著論文
    1992 年 9 巻 p. 92-105
    発行日: 1992年
    公開日: 2018/03/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    Im “Prologus in opus propositionum” unterscheidet Echkhart das “esse” vom “esse huius et huius.” In der vorliegenden Abhandlung möchte ich feststellen, daß diese Unterscheidung in Eckharts Gedanken grundlegend ist.
    Eckhart schreibt dem Einzelnen neben dem “esse huius et huis” auch das “esse” zu, das dem “hoc et hoc” nicht gehört, und das deswegen ständig von Gott her empfangen werden muß. Dasselbe gilt von Eckharts Begriff von der “iustitia.” Die “iustitia” ist kein Akzidens, das vom Subjekt abhängt. Auch der “iustus” ist über das “hoc et hoc” von der “iustitia” geformt.
    Eckharts Gedanken vom “esse” und von der “iustitia”, und zwar im Hinblick auf die Unterscheidung vom “hoc et hoc”,bildet einen Grund für die Eckhartische Mystik, worin es sich um Gott und die Seele handelt. Gott als “esse” tritt nicht in die “potentiae animae” ein, die mit dem “hoc et hoc” zu tun haben, sondern nur in die “essentia animae”, die nur mit dem “esse” zu tun hat. Aber in die “essentia animae” tritt Gott nicht mit irgendeinem “additum” ein. Andererseits fordert Eckhart, daß der Mensch von allem “hoc et hoc” befreit ist, nur Gott erkennt und nur um Gottes willen handelt.
    In der Unterscheidung und sozusagen “abegescheidenheit” vom “hoc et hoc” liegt der Schlüssel zum Verständnis für Eckharts Gedanken, wie im folgenden dargestellt wird.
  • 森本 聡
    原稿種別: 原著論文
    1992 年 9 巻 p. 106-119
    発行日: 1992年
    公開日: 2018/03/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    Intelligible Matter, which derives from Plato’s Indefinite Dyad, is adopted and developed by Plotinus. But it is not clear what position it has in his whole system, whose ‘pivot’ is the theory of Spiritual Intuition or Contemplation. This paper will throw light on what it is and how related to the Spiritual Intuition of Intelligence.
    There are two reasons Plotinus supposes Intelligible Matter in the Intelligible World; (i) Forms there have particular characteristics which distinguish them one from another. So there must be something which receives and unifies them, and this ‘something’ must be Intelligible Matter. (ii) Intelligence is unlimited when it proceeds from the One, and it begins to behold itself and constitutes the World of Forms by being defined and informed by it. That which is limited by forms is matter. So Intelligence must have Intelligible Matter as the essential part of its constitution.
    Intelligence beholds the World of Forms by beholding itself. So it is ‘one-many.’ But it also has a higher aspect of Spiritual Intuition which can grasp the One as it is and receive the Formative Principle from it. This higher Spiritual Intellection has four functions; (i) it makes Intelligence proceed from the One, (ii) it makes Intelligence be informed and limited by the One, (iii) it makes Intelligence maintain the unity of the Intelligible World, and (iv) it makes Intelligenece return to the One. Of these four functions it has the second and the third in common with Intelligible Matter. Without them, it also would be meaningless. So it contains Matter of the Intelligible World as the essential element of its structure. And the other is valid only when it is connected with the higher Spiritual Intuition.
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