External-stimuli-responsive smart viscoelastic systems have the potential for diverse applications. Worm-like micelles (WLMs) are distinct viscoelastic systems. Several stimuli-responsive WLMs have been reported thus far, in which modifications are triggered by pH variations, redox reactions, temperature shifts, and light. However, sugar-responsive WLMs have not been reported. Phenylboronic acid (PBA) reversibly forms cyclic ester with cis-diol compounds; therefore, it serves as a cis-diol sensor for compounds such as glucose (Glc) and fructose (Fru). Adding PBA to cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in a basic medium induces the transition of spherical micelles to WLMs. This is accompanied by a substantial increase in the viscosity of the CTAB/PBA system. Notably, the addition of Glc to the CTAB/PBA system induces the transformation of the WLMs into spherical micelles or short rod-like micelles. In this review, we describe diol-responsive micellar systems based on PBA and their rheological properties.