This article provides an overview of recent international trends in large-scale educational assessment and relevant issues in educational measurement. The literature indicates that the design, administration, and functions of large-scale assessment are changing dramatically, due to the changes in measurement content and method that reflect evolving societal needs. This in turn raises various measurement issues such as concerns with validity and efficient processing and psychometric modeling of complex data. While the successful implementation of large-scale assessment in its most advanced form is still largely ideal with many issues to be addressed, research and practice in line with the overall trends are emerging. Implications for assessment practice in Japan are also discussed.