This paper explores the pivotal role of kerogen, an essential organic component found in geological formations, with significant implications for geochemistry and energy exploration. The primary objective of this paper is to unravel the intricate relationship between kerogen and the generation of hydrocarbons, shedding light on the fundamental processes underlying the formation of petroleum and its consequent impact on the distribution of oil and gas resources. Additionally, the paper undertakes a comprehensive analysis of how kerogen plays a crucial role in understanding reservoir characteristics and caprocks, while also exploring its practical applications in the realm of petroleum exploration. Furthermore, this paper examines the potential of kerogen as a driver for sustainable energy development, examining both its opportunities and the challenges that must be addressed. By providing an in-depth review of the formation, properties, and diverse applications of kerogen, this paper serves as an indispensable resource for researchers in the fields of geology, organic geochemistry, and petroleum exploration.
This paper aims to comprehensively review and assess the research advancements in low salinity water flooding technology within the context of oilfield development. The efficacy of low salinity water flooding in substantially enhancing oil recovery through the manipulation of rock wettability and alteration of oil-water interactions has been empirically demonstrated. In recent years, investigators have delved into pivotal facets such as wettability mechanisms, repercussions of water quality, and interactions between groundwater and rock formations, among others. These endeavors have laid the groundwork for grasping the technology’s nuances and potential applications. The continuous evolution of experimental investigations and numerical simulation techniques has validated the efficacy of low salinity water flooding in boosting yields. Simultaneously, environmental considerations are gradually assuming paramount importance in research pursuits. However, an in-depth exploration of the underlying mechanisms remains indispensable, and a more comprehensive study of the displacement effects in multi-component crude oils is warranted. Concurrently, optimizing the impact and sustainability of low salinity water flooding calls for the amalgamation of intelligent management practices and environmentally sound techniques. Low salinity water flooding technology holds significant promise in the realm of oilfield development. Future research imperatives should center on untangling these pivotal quandaries, thereby propelling the pragmatic implementation and sustainable evolution of this technology.
Forests hold significant ecological value due to their contributions to biodiversity preservation, carbon cycling, climate regulation, hydrological balance, soil protection, prevention of erosion, resource provisioning, eco-tourism, and cultural enrichment. These values not only influence the ecosystems themselves but are also intricately connected to human society’s development and well-being. However, with the ongoing rise in global temperatures, the impact of climate change on forests is becoming increasingly apparent, presenting formidable challenges. In recent years, this subject has gained prominence in global research, prompting profound investigations into the multifaceted effects of climate change on forest ecosystems. This paper aims to comprehensively review the latest advancements in this domain, delving into how climate change influences the structure, functionality, and biodiversity of forest ecosystems. The insights presented herein offer valuable guidance towards achieving sustainable development objectives.
Wheat, as a pivotal food crop, relies significantly on nitrogen, a fundamental nutrient for its growth and development. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the recent strides made in the realm of studying nitrogen nutrition in wheat. Prior investigations have illuminated considerable variability in nitrogen absorption and utilization among wheat varieties. Some strains exhibit heightened nitrogen absorption capacities, while others demonstrate superior nitrogen use efficiency. The enhancement of wheat’s nitrogen use efficiency hinges on the selection of suitable wheat varieties attuned to distinct soil conditions and levels of nitrogen supply. This paper encapsulates the evolution of wheat nitrogen nutrition research across five principal domains: (1) nitrogen absorption and translocation; (2) nitrogen metabolism and regulatory mechanisms; (3) nitrogen fertilizer management strategies; (4) the interplay between wheat varieties and nitrogen utilization efficiency; and (5) the intricate interrelationship between nitrogen nutrition and the wheat-growing environment. By scrutinizing advancements within these dimensions, this analysis furnishes a robust scholarly framework for the cultivation of wheat varieties that harness nitrogen resources with utmost efficiency.