The current refugee problem facing international society has its roots in the Middle East. The impact of refugees is high in this region of numerous conflicts and continuous political instability. The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is one of the gently welcoming host countries that provides a refuge for people from adjacent areas. In protecting refugees, Jordan’s non-state sector plays an important role alongside the state and international regime Previous studies of Jordan’s refugee protection policy and international relations, however, have not addressed the NGO sector, although it has been mentioned in analyses of the Muslim Brotherhood, and in reference to Islamic Activism. In this context, NGOs are mostly treated as a threat to the state’s legitimacy.
This paper examines the development of Jordan’s refugee relief in the protection process and actor relations, especially among the state, international organizations, and non-state actors. It was found that Jordan’s NGO sector has grown since the country’s political liberalization; Islamic NGOs, in particular, play an important role in refugee protection in the urban sphere. The government of Jordan, by tightening the regulation of NGOs, has restricted their political activities and encouraged them to throw themselves into protection activities. The Jordanian refugee policy aims to attract international support, without becoming dependent upon international organizations, by organizing royal NGOs and using traditional Islamic channels to encourage the resilience of the whole community. In this way, Jordan strengthens he state’s legitimacy by contributing to state development and maintaining the stability of Islamic power.
John Borthwick Gilchrist (1759–1841) contributed significantly to the Hindustani language education of civil servants of the East India Company. Despite many difficulties, he wrote many dictionaries and grammar books. Because of his linguistic achievements, he was appointed as a teacher at the Oriental Seminary since its inception to teach a course on Hindustani and Persian languages for civil servants. Gilchrist flourished at the Oriental Seminary, and this success led to the establishment of Fort William College (FWC). At FWC, established in Calcutta in 1800, he worked as a professor of the Hindustani language from 1800 to 1804. He supervised translation work by Indian scholars and published many books on Hindustani.
This paper concerns his personal history, research, and educational activities pertaining to the Hindustani language. His successors in the Hindustani department were unable to publish their work, and almost no reprinting was undertaken at FWC after his retirement. Although English replaced Indian languages as the administrative language of British India after a long controversy in the mid-nineteenth century, it is noteworthy that Gilchrist cooperated with the Governor-General in promoting ‘oriental’ education for junior civil servants. FWC could not have been established and maintained without Gilchrist’s efforts.
This paper examines biomass briquette production in Kampala, the capital of Uganda, as a case study of practical use of municipal solid waste as cooking fuel. In the 2000s, people in Kampala started to produce biomass briquettes from kitchen waste, such as banana peel, as alternative cooking fuel to charcoal. Briquettes were introduced in Africa in the 1980s, but production did not continue, reportedly due to high production costs and the ready availability of woodfuel. While considering waste generation, material collection, and briquette production, I have found that raw materials such as banana peel are available throughout the year, and producers can make briquettes without advanced technology or knowledge. The number of briquette producers has been increasing since the late 2000s, and individual producers have developed their production processes with the assistance of environmental organizations. Since the producers can acquire the raw materials in the city, they are able to set a low price for briquettes and make a profit from briquette production. Various background factors such as the availability of raw materials, the simple production process, and the involvement of local/international environmental aid organizations enable briquette producers in Kampala to manage organic waste and to continue their business in a sustainable manner.