There is a significant variety of vascular conduits options for coronary bypass surgery. Adequate graft selection is the most important factor for the success of the intervention. To ensure durability, permeability, and bypass function, there must be a morphological similarity between the graft and the coronary artery. The objective of this review was to analyze the morphological characteristics of the grafts that are most commonly used in coronary bypass surgery and the coronary arteries that are most frequently occluded. We included clinical information regarding the characteristics that determine the behavior of the grafts and its permeability over time. Currently, the internal thoracic artery is the standard choice for bypass surgery because of the morphological characteristics of the wall that makes less prone to developing atherosclerosis and hyperplasia. The radial and right gastroepiploic arteries are the following second and third best options, respectively. The ulnar artery is the preferred choice when other conduits are not feasible.
This article is a continuation of previous reviews about the appropriate method for long-segment tracheal reconstruction. We attempted to cover the most recent, successful and promising results of the different solutions for reconstruction that are rather innovative and suitable for imminent clinical application. Latest efforts to minimize the limitations associated with each method have been covered as well. In summary, autologous and allogenic tissue reconstruction of the trachea have been successful methods for reconstruction experimentally and clinically. Autologous tissues were best utilized clinically to enhance revascularization, whether as a definitive airway or as an adjunct to allografts or tissue-engineered trachea (TET). Allogenic tissue transplantation is, currently, the most suitable for clinical application, especially after elimination of the need for immunosuppressive therapy with unlimited supply of tissues. Similar results have been reported in many studies that used TET. However, clinical application of this method was limited to use as a salvage treatment in a few studies with promising results. These results still need to be solidified by further clinical and long-term follow-up reports. Combining different methods of reconstruction was often required to establish a physiological rather than an anatomical trachea and have shown superior outcomes.
Purpose: The present study aimed to compare the clinical outcome for patients with or without muscle flap reconstruction after deep sternal wound infection due to open-heart surgery.
Methods: The study was a retrospective cohort study, including patients who developed deep sternal wound infection after open-heart surgery in the Western Denmark Region from 1999 to 2011. Journals of included patients were reviewed for clinical data regarding the treatment of their sternal defect. Patients were divided into two groups depending on whether they received a muscle-flap-based sternal reconstruction or traditional rewiring of the sternum.
Results: A total of 130 patients developed deep sternal wound infection in the study period. In all, 12 patients died before being discharged, leaving a total of 118 patients for analysis. Of these, 50 (42%) patients received muscle flap reconstruction. Muscle flap recipients had significantly longer total hospital stays (p <0.001). However, after receiving muscle flap reconstruction, patients were discharged after a median of 14 days, with 74% not needing additional surgery.
Conclusion: It is difficult to predict which patients eventually require muscle flap reconstruction after deep sternal wound infection. Although patients receiving muscle flap reconstructions have longer hospital stays, they are quickly discharged after the reconstruction.
Objective: Blood loss is a predictor of outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). This study investigated the effects of body mass index (BMI) on blood loss, blood transfusion rate, and the variations in coagulation parameters of Chinese patients undergoing CABG.
Methods: A total of 1007 Chinese patients who consecutively underwent isolated, primary CABG at Fuwai Hospital from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013 were included in this study. They were categorized by BMI into <24 kg/m2 (low and normal weight group), 24≤ BMI <28 kg/m2 (overweight group), and BMI ≥28 kg/m2 (obese group). Following this BMI classification, the quantities of blood lost and recorded transfusions were analyzed.
Results: Blood loss and transfusion rates were significantly higher in the low and normal weight group compared with the obese group (p <0.01). Chest tube drainage over 24 h, duration of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and postoperative mechanical ventilation were higher as well (p <0.01). Atrial fibrillation was closely related to blood transfusion (p <0.001).
Conclusions: Obesity is a predictor for protection against blood loss and transfusion in Chinese people. Patients with low and normal BMI lost more blood per kg of their weight and had higher total transfused volume during isolated primary CABG. Atrial fibrillation was associated with high blood transfusion.
Purpose: Beta-blocker use is common in the cases with coronary artery bypass surgery. According to the literature, beta-blockers have positive effects but may cause erectile dysfunction (ED). The most commonly used beta-blockers in ischemic cardiac disease are nebivolol and metoprolol. In our clinic, we aimed to compare the effects of nebivolol and metoprolol succinate on ED in the sexually active cases with coronary artery bypass surgery.
Methods: In our clinic, a total of 119 patients with coronary artery bypass surgery were included in the study. International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) Test was used to evaluate whether the patients had ED and to grade the cases.
Results: No significant difference was found in terms of anti-ischemic efficacy between metoprolol succinate and nebivolol in the postoperative period; however, the incidence of any grade ED was %85.96 in Group 1, %83.87 in Group 2. This difference was considered as statistically significant (p = 0.036).
Conclusion: Beta-blocker use increases the risk of ED in cases with ischemic cardiac disease. We suggest that the complaints of ED could be less frequent with nebivolol use in sexually active cases with ischemic cardiac disease.
Purpose: Kilt technique can be useful for overcoming the severe angle in endovascular abdominal aortic repair. Thus, we investigate the utility of the Kilt technique as an angle modification method.
Methods: This study included 16 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm having severe neck angle (over 60°). Of these, eight were treated using Kilt technique, whereas the remaining eight were by the conventional endovascular method. We investigated the pre- and post-procedural differences in neck angle between the two groups using aortic computed tomography (CT) angiography.
Results: Mean pre-procedural neck angles in the conventional group and the Kilt group were 70° ± 13° and 93° ± 14° (p = 0.007) and supra-renal neck angles were 54° ± 16° and 89° ± 26°, respectively (p = 0.016). However, the angle differences disappeared between the two groups after the procedure. Consequently, the Kilt group showed greater angle change than the conventional group (p value for ∆ supra-renal angle and ∆ neck angle were 0.015 and 0.021, respectively). There was no type 1 endoleak during 16 ± 16 months of CT follow-up.
Conclusion: Kilt technique may be an effective tool for modifying the neck angle without leaving increased risk of type 1 endoleak in this subset of patients.
This report describes a case of surgical treatment for a coronary artery saccular aneurysm of the left main bifurcation. A coronary artery saccular aneurysm (7 mm × 10 mm) and three vessel disease, including the left main trunk, were diagnosed by coronary angiography. A surgical resection and saphenous vein patch repair of the left main coronary artery aneurysm was performed concomitantly with coronary artery bypass grafting. The pathological findings of the aneurysm clarified that the aneurysm wall was atrophic and extremely thin because of a collapsed trilaminar arterial structure due to atherosclerosis. A coronary computed tomographic scan revealed no aneurysmal formation in the patent left main trunk and patent grafts 3 years after surgery.
Catamenial pneumothorax (CP) is generally caused by intraperitoneal air leaking from the uterus into the thoracic cavity via a defect in the endometrial tissue of the diaphragm and is usually detected in the right thorax. We report a case of left-sided CP caused by endometriosis in the visceral pleura and with no abnormal findings in the diaphragm. A 33-year-old female patient presented at the end of a course of low-dose contraceptive pills for pelvic endometriosis, with spontaneous pneumothorax in the left chest. Chest CT revealed a bulla in the left upper lung lobe. The patient underwent partial resection of the lung. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of endometrial stromal tissue in the visceral pleura and confirmed this as the cause of pneumothorax since there were no observable abnormalities in the diaphragm. This case suggests that immunohistochemical examination of patients with spontaneous pneumothorax can detect alternative endometrial lesions.
An arterioenteric fistula is a devastating and life-threatening condition that requires urgent treatment. Less-invasive endovascular treatment has emerged as an alternative to conventional open repair, but postoperative graft infection remains a major concern. We herein report a case of late stent graft infection after emergency endovascular repair of a secondary iliac artery-enteric fistula. The patient was a 63-year-old male who presented with a fever, who had undergone successful endovascular stent grafting for a secondary common iliac artery-enteric fistula 29 months prior. The diagnosis of a stent graft infection was confirmed via computed tomography. He underwent graft removal and in situ reconstruction with femoral vein grafts. At 6-month follow-up, the patient is in a good general condition without any symptoms.
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