This paper explores the role of initial investment amount in the evaluation of investment opportunities. A new “Capital Integration Hypothesis” which takes into account the initial investment amount is introduced, and the family of utility functions it engenders are discussed. Initial investment risk aversion is defined as the behavior implied by certain of these functions, and it is shown that a quadratic utility function falls into this class.
The importance of trend and cross-national studies on general social attitudes has become widely recognized. However, very little published trend and cross-national data or studies on general social attitudes, which persistently use identical survey systems, have been identified. Up to now, despite some methodological limitations, the studies published in recent years have provided an encouraging base for the future of trend and cross-national studies of general social attitudes. Cooperation will be essential for future studies as they apply various improved methodologies not only to existing trend and cross-national data but also to new survey data collection procedures. Like the development of cohort analysis for trend studies of general social attitudes, as well as the development of correspondence analysis for cross-national studies of general social attitudes, combinations of both cohort and correspondence analyses have been proposed. Finally, it is suggested that for both trend and cross-national studies of general social attitudes, it is better not only to develop the hard-mode approach but also to develop the soft-mode approach by fully utilizing the hard-mode approach. Conducting this type of research in the context of trend and cross-national analyses will enable empirical analyses to verify existing sociological theories as well as contribute to the establishment of new or modified theories.
Many contingency tables have ordered response categories. This paper compares two major approaches to ordinal response categories, namely the point representation and the block (interval) representation. Specifically, two methods are compared, each representing each of the two approaches. One is ideal point discriminant analysis (IPDA) and the other the successive categories method (SCM). Similarities and distinctions between the two methods are explicated. The goodness-of-fit (GOF) is compared through AIC using several example data sets. IPDA and SCM were found to provide similar GOF, but IPDA was found to provide a slightly better fit in all the data sets examined.
This study proposes a model of consumer choice behavior as sequential decision process. It is hypothesized that consumers form desirable product model and undesirable one through purchasing experience, by which they decide on whether a brand should be purchased or not. This study analyzes the dynamic process of formation of belief about brands and decision making through collecting information. We verified the ff.: how consumer belief is influenced by initial belief (2.3), why attributes with small utility can play an important role (2.4), how sellers improve their brands (3.1), when consumers can sacrifice correctness of choice for minimizing opportunity loss (3.2), and how choice environment is defined (3.3).