In the present paper, scalogram analysis proposed by Guttman (1950) is developed into latent scalogram analysis, and a general discussion of the analysis is presented. The present paper deals with not only linear hierarchical structures but also branching hierarchical structures. In order to select a hierarchical structure which best fits the data set, model selection procedures are considered in both exploratory and confirmatory contexts. Concerning latent scales which exist in the population under consideration, a dynamic interpretation of latent scales is discussed through a mathematical viewpoint, and a method for evaluating the proportions of latent scales is proposed. Moreover in order to compare the latent scales, a latent space for locating the extracted latent classes is constructed by a technique similar to canonical analysis. Numerical examples are also presented to illustrate the present analysis.
Experiments have been made to investigate the relationship between the activity level of the brain waves (Electroencehalogram or EEG) of trained professional drivers and untrained people while monotonous tasks. These have been done to improve the safety management of drivers. The purpose of this study is to show how EEG activity changes accoriding to the time spent on monotonous tasks. The results are as follows: in the case of untrained people, grouped α waves appeared frequently; in the professional drivers the slow α wave appeared, but grouped α waves did not appear. It seemes that drowsiness occurs less in professional drivers because of their well-developed self-control.
The objective of the study is to place Arab culture in relation to American and Japanese cultures. In so doing the role the language in use plays in our attitudes was examined. The data sources for the study are derived from a series of student surveys and focused interviews conducted by us and others from 1979 through 1990 in Japan, the United States and the Arab world. Hayashi's pattern analysis was used to locate Arab culture in comparison with American and Japanese cultures. In this study, we found that Arab culture when compared with American and Japanese cultures is industrialist (if “conquer nature” is so perceived), rational and efficiency-oriented, selection-oriented or decisive, and tradition-oriented. American culture in relation to Arab and Japanese cultures is noted for its individualistic orientation, optimism, postindustrialism (if “follow nature” is so considered), and workplace paternalism. Japanese culture is characterized by contexturalism and non-direction orientation (indecisive and fuzzy to Arabs and Americans).
It is sometimes difficult to obtain complete life data of products in a market. We take a distribution of beer cases in a market as an example and discuss a method of estimation of the distribution period of a product in a market applying a reliability analysis based on the estimated rate using a logistic model.
There exist several methods of testing homogeneity of two marginal distributions of a square contingency table with ordinal categories. In the present paper, some notes on the properties of the test are made and validity and powers are examined by Monte Carlo simulation. A modification of the Koch-Reinfurt test is proposed for achieving better small-sample approximation to the null distribution. Furthermore a cumulative chi-square test is proposed, which is expected to have fairly high power for broad alternatives of location and/or scale shift. Simulation studies indicate that in small or moderate samples, more accurate approximation distributions are worth developing for some of the tests examined. It is also shown that the power of tests is highly dependent on the latent distributional model and the skewness of the marginal probabilities.