BioScience Trends
Online ISSN : 1881-7823
Print ISSN : 1881-7815
ISSN-L : 1881-7815
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Policy Forum
  • Xu Wang, Wenhui Wu, Peipei Song, Jiangjiang He
    2020 Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages 231-240
    Published: August 31, 2020
    Released: September 21, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: May 09, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic around the world. With the explosive growth of confirmed cases, emergency medical supplies are facing global shortage, which restricts the treatment of seriously ill patients and protection of medical staff. Taking China, the United States, Australia, and Canada as examples, this study compares and analyzes the reserve and supply systems of emergency medical supplies and problems exposed in response to the COVID-19 epidemic. Some common problems were found, such as insufficient types and quantities of emergency medical supplies in reserve, insufficient emergency production capacity, and imperfect command mechanism for emergency supplies deployment and transportation. A sound reserve system of emergency medical supplies is the basis and guarantee for dealing with public health emergencies such as major outbreaks. Based on the comparison of systems and practical experience, countries around the world should further improve the reserve and supply system of emergency medical supplies, and improve the coordination and cooperation mechanism for emergency supplies for international public health emergencies, so as to cope with increasingly severe public health emergencies in the context of globalization.

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Original Article
  • Naomi Takahashi, Yoshimitsu Takahashi, Yasuharu Tabara, Takahisa Kawag ...
    2020 Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages 241-247
    Published: August 31, 2020
    Released: September 21, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: July 04, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Characteristics of high frequency (HF) component based on heart rate variability (HRV) in a large general population remain unclear, particularly on the relationship with daily physical activity. We aimed to characterize the distribution of HF component and examine the association with daily physical activity among community residents. We performed spectral analysis of HRV from 10-second ECG recordings among 9135 residents aged 30 to 74 years in Nagahama City, Japan. HF components were log-transformed to consider the distribution. Simple correlations between HF and age were determined. Age-adjusted mean values of HF component were calculated for each questionnaire item related to daily physical activity. Multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the effect of daily physical activity on HF component value. Mean values of logarithmically-transformed HF component (lnHF) were higher in women than in men (p < 0.001). lnHF was inversely associated with age (r = −0.40, −0.49 for men, women, respectively). Adjusted mean lnHF for physically active people was significantly higher than that in inactive people (p < 0.001). HF components from 10-second ECG recordings were moderately and negatively correlated with age in both sexes, and positively correlated with daily physical activity in the general adult population. Maintaining the level of daily physical activity, especially to exercise regularly could keep the parasympathetic function high.

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  • Juan Hou, Qinmei Liu, Jinna Wang, Yuyan Wu, Tianqi Li, Zhenyu Gong
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages 248-254
    Published: August 31, 2020
    Released: September 21, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: June 27, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    From 2003 until 2018, a total of 12 outbreaks with 1,654 confirmed dengue cases have been reported in Zhejiang Province. The emergence of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes will affect the control of dengue. Our study aims to investigate the current situation of insecticide resistance of Ae. albopictus in Zhejiang Province and compares it with the situation in 2016. Ae. albopictus were collected from 12 Zhejiang Province cities in 2019. Resistance to three major categories of insecticides, including 8 commonly used insecticides, was evaluated according to the tube test protocol recommended by China CDC. Ae. albopictus in all cities, except Hangzhou, Wenzhou, Lishui and Shaoxing, showed decreased susceptibility to beta-cypermethrin, deltamethrin and permethrin. For malathion, 3 cities Ae. albopictus have developed resistance, 3 cities Ae. albopictus have decreased susceptibility. For propoxur, in 3 cities Ae. albopictus showed decreased susceptibility with mortality ranging from 94.24% to 96.67%. The resistance to alpha-cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and fenitrothion is rare in Ae. albopictus in that only Zhoushan's mosquitoes showed decreased susceptibility to alpha-cypermethrin. The resistance to beta-cypermethrin, deltamethrin and permethrin was significantly correlated with each other. Compared to the situation in 2016, the insecticide resistance of Ae. albopictus in Zhejiang Province has become more common in 2019. In the emergency preparedness for future mosquito-borne diseases, two things should be done: 1) the selection of insecticides should be made based on information from insecticide resistance surveillance 2) the use of insecticide should follow scientific guidance.

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  • Xiaoning Sun, Kentaro Kawata, Atsuko Miki, Youichiro Wada, Masami Naga ...
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages 255-262
    Published: August 31, 2020
    Released: September 21, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 30, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella), a pathogenic bacterium, is a major cause of foodborne diseases worldwide. Salmonella injects multiple virulence factors, called effectors, into cells and causes multiple rearrangements of cellular biological reactions that are important for Salmonella proliferation and virulence. Previously, we reported that Salmonella infection causes loss of MTR4 and RRP6, which are nuclear RNA degradation factors, resulting in the stabilization and accumulation of unstable nuclear RNAs. This accumulation is important for the cellular defense for Salmonella infection. In this study, we examined a series of Salmonella mutant strains, most of which are strains with genes related to effectors translocated by T3SSs encoded on Salmonella pathogenic islands, SPI-1 and SPI-2, that have been depleted. Among 42 Salmonella mutants, 6 mutants' infections canceled loss of MTR4 and RRP6. Proliferation assay of Salmonella in the cell revealed that six mutants showed poor proliferation in the host cell, demonstrating that poor proliferation contributed to cancellation of MTR4 and RRP6 loss. This result indicates that certain events associated with Salmonella proliferation in host cells cause loss of MTR4 and RRP6.

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  • Lisha Li, Yizhen Sima, Yan Wang, Jing Zhou, Ling Wang, Yisong Chen
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages 263-270
    Published: August 31, 2020
    Released: September 21, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: June 03, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) occurs when the pelvic organs (bladder, bowel or uterus) herniate into the vagina, causing incontinence, voiding, and bowel and sexual dysfunction, negatively impacting upon a woman's quality of life. Intermediate intermolecular cross-links and advanced glycation cross-links increase in prolapsed tissue. Stem cells are able to participate in tissue repair due to their ability to differentiate into multiple lineages, and thus into various types of connective tissue cells, so they therefore hold great promise for treating pelvic floor dysfunction. The current study found that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) inhibited the viability and proliferation of human vaginal wall fibroblasts (VWFs), were cytotoxic to VWFs, and also induced the apoptosis of VWFs. In contrast, umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) secreted anti-inflammation cytokines to protect against the cytotoxic effects of fibroblasts induced by AGEs and attenuated the cytotoxic effect of AGE on fibroblasts by activation of the PI3K/Akt-PTEN pathway. This study demonstrated that UCMSCs inhibited the cytotoxic effect of AGE in cells from patients with POP by inducing an anti-inflammatory reaction and activating the PI3K/AKT/PTEN signaling pathway. The current results provide important insights into use of stem cells to treat POP.

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  • Lin Zhao, Nan Cheng, Bo Sun, Shuzhen Wang, Anyuan Li, Zhixue Wang, Yua ...
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages 271-278
    Published: August 31, 2020
    Released: September 21, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: July 31, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Tourette's syndrome (TS) is an inherited neurologic disorder characterized by involuntary stereotyped motor and vocal tics. Its pathogenesis is still unclear and its treatment remains limited. Recent research has suggested the involvement of immune mechanisms in the pathophysiology of TS. Microglia are the brain's resident innate immune cells. They can mediate neuroinflammation and regulate brain development and homeostasis. A traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Ningdong granule (NDG), has been found to be efficacious in the treatment of TS while causing few adverse reactions. In the current study, a rat model of 3,3'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN)-induced TS was used to explore the regulating effects and mechanisms of NDG on microglia-mediated neuroinflammation. IDNP led to robust pathological changes and neurobehavioral complications, with activation of microglia in the striatum of rats with TS. After activation by IDNP, microglia strongly responded to this specific injury, and TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1 were released in the striatum and/or serum of rats with TS. Interestingly, NDG inhibited the activation of microglia and decreased the abnormal expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1 in the striatum and/or serum of rats with TS, thus controlling tics. However, there were no significant changes in the striatum and/or serum of rats with TS after treatment with haloperidol. The anti-TS action of haloperidol might occur not through microglial activation and neuroinflammation but through the DAT system, thus controlling tics. In conclusion, microglia might play key roles in mediating neuroinflammatory responses in TS, triggering the release of TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1.NDG inhibited tics in rats with TS, and this mechanism may be associated with a reduction in the increased number of activated microglia and a decrease in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the striatum and/or serum.

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  • Jiaqi Zhu, Ruixue Zhao, Wei Xu, Jing Ma, Xin Ning, Rong Ma, Fanling Me ...
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages 279-284
    Published: August 31, 2020
    Released: September 21, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: June 14, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Our purpose was to evaluate the correlation between endoplasmic reticulum ribosomal binding protein 1 (RRBP1) expression in cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) and poor patient prognosis. RRBP1 is a nascent transporter that is situated on the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER). It adjusts to the secretion of proteins in cells and alleviates ER stress, thus stimulating cell proliferation. An immunohistochemical (IHC) study was conducted to detect the expression level of RRBP1 on 96 CSCC tissue samples. Western blot and Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were performed to compare the expression levels of RRBP1 in cervical squamous cell carcinoma with healthy cervical tissues. An overexpression of RRBP1 was observed in CSCC tissues, and the expression level was associated with FIGO stage (Stage I vs. II: 52.6% vs. 74.1%, p = 0.030), and lymph node metastasis (No vs. Yes: 61.5% vs. 92.3%, p = 0.031) but not patient age and tissue differentiation. Univariate survival analysis indicated that prognosis was associated with the expression level of RRBP1 and tissue differentiation and lymph node metastasis. Analysis of the multi-factor survival Cox model proved that RRBP1 was an independent prognostic factor. In conclusion, compared with healthy cervical tissues, RRBP1 was overexpressed in CSCC tissues, illustrating that RRBP1 may be a new biomarker for the diagnosis of CSCC. The study on RRBP1 may contribute to exploring the pathogenesis of CSCC and may also guide targeted therapy for CSCC in the future.

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  • Ying Zou, Hongying Guo, Yuyi Zhang, Zhengguo Zhang, Yu Liu, Jiefei Wan ...
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages 285-289
    Published: August 31, 2020
    Released: September 21, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: April 30, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    To investigate the characteristic of coagulation function in 303 patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we evaluated the correlation between coagulation function and disease status. We retrospectively analyzed 303 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and evaluated the clinical data of 240 patients who were discharged. The coagulation function of the two groups (mild and severe) was compared. Compared with the mild group, majority of patients in the severe group were male (76.9% vs. 49.8%) and elderly (median age 65 vs. 50), and the proportion with chronic underlying diseases was higher (73.1% vs. 36.1%). There were 209 abnormalities (69.0%) of coagulation parameters in 303 patients admitted to hospital. Comparison of various indexes of coagulation function between the two groups in admission, the proportion of abnormal coagulation indicators in the severe group was higher than that in the mild group (100% vs. 66.1%). The median coagulation parameters in the severe group were higher than those in the mild group: international normalized ratio (1.04 vs. 1.01), prothrombin time (13.8 vs. 13.4) seconds, activated partial thromboplastin time (43.2 vs. 39.2) seconds, fibrinogen (4.74 vs. 4.33) g/L, fibrinogen degradation products (2.61 vs. 0.99) µg/mL, and D-dimer (1.04 vs. 0.43) µg/mL, the differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Coagulation dysfunction is common in patients with COVID-19, especially fibrinogen and D-dimer elevation, and the degree of elevation is related to the severity of the disease. As the disease recovers, fibrinogen and activated partial thromboplastin time also return to normal.

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  • Mingshan Xue, Peiyan Zheng, Xiqing Bian, Zhifeng Huang, Huimin Huang, ...
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages 290-296
    Published: August 31, 2020
    Released: September 21, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: June 21, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This study aimed to determine the clinical significance of Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) in patients with COVID-19, so as to find a marker with high sensitivity, specificity and easy detection to evaluate the lung injury and inflammation of COVID-19. Sixty-three COVID-19 patients and 43 non-COVID-19 patients with similar clinical phenotypes and/or imaging findings were enrolled to test the levels of KL-6 using chemiluminescent immunoassay. In addition, the blood gas, imaging and lymphocyte factors tests were collected from all participants. The data was finally analyzed using multivariate statistical analysis. The results showed KL-6 levels in COVID-19 patients were higher than those in non-COVID-19 patients (P < 0.001). Moreover, the KL-6 levels in severe and critically severe patients were significantly upregulated compared with patients with mild and common type (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the imaging evaluation showed a significant correlation between KL-6 and pulmonary lesion area (P < 0.05). KL-6 was also found to be significantly correlated with oxygenation index and oxygen partial pressure difference of alveolar artery (PA-aDO2) (Both P < 0.01). In conclusion, KL-6 could be an indicator to evaluate the progression of COVID-19, which is parallel to the level of lung injury and inflammation in patients. Moreover, it can also reflect the pulmonary ventilation function.

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  • Li Qin, Chuan Li, Fei Xie, Zhenxia Wang, Tianfu Wen
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages 297-303
    Published: August 31, 2020
    Released: September 21, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: July 08, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Inflammation-based markers are considered prognostic indicators for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after liver resection. However, there is little information concerning whether they are useful for HCC patients with clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH). In this study, 1452 patients were enrolled. Independent risk factors for recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed for patients with and without CSPH. For HCC patients without CSPH, multivariate analysis suggested that microvascular invasion (MVI), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) ≥ 3, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) ≥ 150, tumor size > 5 cm, and the presence of a satellite lesion were independently associated with RFS. MVI, NLR ≥ 3, PLR ≥ 150, and advanced Barcelona clinical liver cancer (BCLC) stage contributed to mortality. However, neither NLR nor PLR showed any prognostic power in HCC patients with CSPH. For HCC patients with CSPH, tumor size > 5 cm, MVI, satellite lesion, and albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) grade were independent risk factors for RFS, whereas tumor size > 5 cm, MVI, multiple tumors, ALBI grade and advanced BCLC stage showed prognostic power for OS. Our study confirmed CSPH influences the predictive ability of inflammation-based markers. This result reminds us to pay more attention to the influence of CSPH when we apply inflammation-based markers in patients with HCC after liver resection.

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  • Hisao Kano, Yutaka Midorikawa, Peipei Song, Hisashi Nakayama, Masamich ...
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages 304-309
    Published: August 31, 2020
    Released: September 21, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: June 05, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    C-reactive protein (CRP)- and albumin (Alb)-based scoring systems are available for predicting the prognosis of patients with diverse forms of gastrointestinal cancer, but their utility for patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is still unclear. This study aimed to elucidate whether a high CRP/Alb ratio is associated with the surgical outcome of ICC patients. Patients who underwent initial and curative resection for ICC were included in this study, and were divided into the High and Low CRP/Alb groups based on their preoperative CRP and Alb values. The surgical outcomes were compared between the two groups. The median CRP/Alb ratio amongst 88 patients was 0.033 (range, 0.019-3.636); 44 patients with CRP/Alb > 0.033 were allocated to the High CRP/Alb group and 44 patients were allocated to the Low CRP/Alb group. The operative data did not differ between the two groups, while the tumor status was more advanced in the High CRP/Alb group. The median overall survival was 2.4 years (95% CI, 1.4-3.3) and 8.9 years (3.8-NA) in the High and Low CRP/Alb groups, respectively (P < 0.001), and recurrence-free survival was 0.5 years (95% CI, 0.3-0.7) and 7.7 years (1.3-NA), respectively (P < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis, the independent factors for overall survival were High CRP/Alb (P = 0.017) and multiple nodules (P = 0.008). Taken together, the survival of ICC patients in the High CRP/Alb group was reduced compared to that of patients in the Low CRP/Alb group due to the advanced stage of the tumor as well as malnutrition.

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Letter
  • Yi Wang, Chengchao Zhou
    Type: letter
    2020 Volume 14 Issue 4 Pages 310-313
    Published: August 31, 2020
    Released: September 21, 2020
    [Advance publication] Released: August 26, 2020
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    China is in a stage of rapid aging of its population, and its old-age dependency ratio has been increasing for decades. The acceleration of aging of the population and the increasing old-age dependency ratio will significantly increase the pressure on social security and public services, highlight the need for the effective supply of labor, and weaken the demographic dividend, which will continue to affect social vitality, the power to innovate, and potential economic growth rates. Promoting social engagement has been widely recognized as an effective strategy to address these challenges. Such an approach not only promotes the development of social productivity, but it also alleviates the social burden. Actively promoting the social engagement of the elderly is an important task in gerontology in China. Although the development of social engagement of the elderly is on the rise, the infrastructure and institutions to provide social engagement need to be enhanced. Improving social engagement in China is not just the responsibility of older adults themselves but also of the country and society as a whole. In the future, the entire society will fully understand the special role of older adults and increase their value through social engagement to achieve active and healthy aging in China.

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