The burden of non-communicable diseases is increasing in Malaysia. Insufficient Physical Activity, which is an important risk factor for non-communicable diseases, is less researched in Malaysia. We aimed to assess the level of physical activity and identify its correlates. An online survey was carried out during October, 2011 in the University Tunku Abdul Rahman by the opinion poll research committee. Young adults answered the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire and a questionnaire about factors according to a socio-ecological model which was adapted from published studies. Metabolic equivalent (MET)-hours and MET-minutes were calculated. Physical activity was classified as sufficient when MET-minutes were > 840. The mean age of the 474 participants was 22.4 years (S.D. = 4.7), and 253 (53.4%) were females. Their mean and median of MET-hours of PA done during the previous seven days were 31.36 (S.D., 52.19) and 14.7 (IQR, 5.77-32.07), respectively. Physical activity done was sufficient among 242 (51.1%) participants. Using univariate analysis, being male, good self-rated health, positive intention, self-efficacy, perceived benefits, social support, and availability of facilities were associated with sufficient physical activity. Using multivariate analysis sufficient physical activity was associated with participants' intention (OR 0.75, 95% CIs 0.64, 0.88), self-efficacy (OR 0.91, 95% CIs 0.85, 0.97) and facility availability (OR 0.81, 95% CIs 0.73, 0.91). The proportion of participants with sufficient physical activity was low. Positive intention and self-efficacy associated with sufficient physical activity should be supported by availability of facilities and a safely-built environment. A nationwide survey about physical and associated social-ecological factors is needed to design rational health promotion strategies.
The major contributing factors for the causation of treatment failure in cases of pulmonary tuberculosis under Category-II directly observed treatment short-course treatment (DOTS) are treatment after default, poor treatment compliance, and development of multi-drug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis. The objective of the present study is to find out the demographic profile and drug susceptibility pattern in Category-II failure patients of pulmonary tuberculosis under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) of India. Two hundreds and twenty four patients with Category-II treatment failure of pulmonary tuberculosis were enrolled from Department of Pulmonary Medicine, at Chatrapati Sahuji Maharaj Medical University, UP, Lucknow, India, from August 2003 to July 2008. Their complete bacteriological assessment in terms of sputum smear for acid-fast bacilli, culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and drug sensitivity pattern were done in the Department of Microbiology. Among 224 patients, 16 (7.1%) patients were lost to follow-up and the final analysis was done among 208 (92.8%) cases. The reasons for inclusion of these 224 cases in the Category II regimen were treatment failure in the previous regimen (n = 75, 33%), default in 57% (n = 129 cases), and relapse in 8.9% (n = 20 cases). Among 208 patients, culture was positive in 170 (81.7%) cases, negative in 17 (8.1%) cases and contaminated in 21 (10%) cases. The drug sensitivity pattern of culture positive cases of Category-II failure patients revealed that, 58.2% (n = 99) had MDR tuberculosis and 40.5% (n = 69) were resistant but were non-MDR tuberculosis and 1.1 % (n = 2) cases were sensitive to all first line antituberculosis drugs.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health issue that threatens the reproductive health of women. Despite a growing demand for research on the potential threat of IPV in relation to adverse reproductive outcomes, there have been no population-based studies of India. The current study analyzed the National Family Health Survey 3, which contained detailed information on types of violence in relation to the single question of pregnancy outcomes. The dataset was used to assess the association between a lifetime experience of IPV and terminated pregnancies among married Indian women. Multiple logistic regression analysis was then used to assess the association between these variables, controlling for socio-demographic characteristics. Results showed that 39.6% of Indian women have experienced violence by their husbands, while 18.3% of women have terminated a pregnancy during their lifetimes. The odds ratio of a terminated pregnancy among women who had experienced any type of partner violence was 1.62 (95% CI (confidence interval) = 1.51-1.73). All combinations of violence except a combination of emotional and sexual violence were associated with an increased risk of a terminated pregnancy. These results suggest that prevention of IPV would reduce the high incidence of terminated pregnancies, thus improving maternal health in India.
Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) is an important opportunistic infection of HIV/AIDS. However, very little is known about antibody seropositivities to HHV8 lytic and latent antigens among HIV-infected patients in China. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted to explore HHV8 serostatus among 316 HIV-infected patients in a rural area of central China. The antibody seropositivity to HHV8 ORF65 (lytic) and LANA (latent) antigens was 12.7% and 10.4%, respectively. Patients who were naïve to antiretroviral therapy (ART) were more likely to be seropositive for antibodies to ORF65 (OR: 3.79; 95% CI: 1.71-8.42) and LANA (OR: 3.77; 95% CI: 1.55-9.14) than patients receiving ART. Patients having CD4+ cell counts less than 200 cells/mm3 were more likely to be seropositive for LANA antibody (OR: 3.53; 95% CI: 1.44-8.64) and to have lower LANA antibody titer (p = 0.007). They were also more likely to be seropositive for ORF65 antibody (OR: 2.12; 95% CI: 0.94-4.78) and to have a lower ORF65 antibody titer (p = 0.065), though the difference was marginally significant. No associations between other viral coinfections studied and antibody seropositivity to either latent or lytic HHV8 antigens were identified. Study findings suggest that antibody responses to both lytic and latent HHV8 antigens among HIV patients in China were fairly high and were associated with immunodeficiency status and ART.
Previous studies have conflicting views on the effect of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)/PDGF receptor (PDGFR) signaling on osteogenesis. The current study investigated the effect of PDGF receptor-beta (PDGFR-β) inhibition by AG-1295 on the osteogenic differentiation of the mouse pre-osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1. Osteogenic differentiation was induced by treatment with β-glycerophosphate, ascorbic acid, and dexamethasone along with or absent AG-1295. Results showed that AG-1295 significantly increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and enhanced the formation of mineralized nodules in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, treatment with AG-1295 resulted in up-regulated mRNA expression of the osteogenic marker genes collagen type I (Col1A), runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osterix (Osx), tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (Tnap), and osteocalcin (Ocn). Consistent with its effect on osteoblast differentiation, AG-1295 also significantly suppressed the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 in MC3T3-E1 cells. In conclusion, findings suggest that blocking the PDGFR-β pathway with AG1295 markedly promotes osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization in mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and that the Erk1/2 pathway might participate in this process.
Cutaneous fibrosis seen in systemic sclerosis (SSc) is caused by fibroblast activation and abnormal collagen accumulation due to 'autocrine transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/Smad signaling'. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) may have therapeutic value against SSc, because of its inducible effect on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1. Previous studies indicated SSc dermal fibroblasts overexpress HGF receptor c-met, which suggest specific and effective induction of MMP-1 in SSc fibroblasts caused by HGF treatment. However, the exact mechanism of c-met overexpression in SSc cells was hardly investigated. We hypothesized that such c-met overexpression is also caused by autocrine TGF-β/Smad signaling. Expression of c-met protein in cultured SSc dermal fibroblasts was significantly up-regulated compared with that in normal fibroblasts. Ectopic TGF-β stimulation induced c-met synthesis in normal fibroblasts, while a TGF-β knockdown normalized the up-regulated c-met levels in SSc fibroblasts. Furthermore, we found the c-met promoter contains a putative binding site for Smads, and the binding activity of Smad2/3 to the c-met promoter was constitutively up-regulated in SSc fibroblasts as well as in normal fibroblasts treated with exogenous TGF-β1. Taken together, c-met may be overexpressed due to autocrine TGF-β/Smad signaling in SSc. Considering that HGF has an antifibrotic effect, such c-met overexpression in SSc fibroblasts may be a negative feedback against cutaneous fibrosis. Clarifying the mechanisms of c-met overexpression and controlling the HGF/c-met pathway may lead to a new therapeutic approach for this disease.
The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV infection has significantly reduced HIV-related infectious complications and improved their survival. With effective antiretroviral therapy, cardiovascular disease has gained prominence as a cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected persons. Aortic dissection is an uncommon but potentially fatal disease with catastrophic complications. The spread of AIDS is a major public health problem in China, but there is scant literature regarding the clinical outcome for HIV/AIDS patients with aortic dissection in China. This case report describes a patient with HIV and type I aortic dissection who survived without surgical repair. This report is provided to describe a detailed and successful outcome for a patient with type I aortic dissection and HIV in China.
With the development of evidence-based medicine (EBM), the concept of "transfer of current best evidence into clinical decision-making" has garnered substantial attention worldwide. As such a good tool, many clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been published worldwide under the guide of current best evidence. Our study did a systematic evaluation of the current 17 guidelines for HCC worldwide, which found that the appropriate constructing approach is the most important factor that influences guidelines implementation. Three factors of organizations or bodies drafting the guideline, exploration for achieving current best evidence, and purpose of constructing evidence-based CPGs for HCC should be paid close attention to. In order to achieve the current best evidence and promote evidence-based CPGs to be widely accepted and fully implemented, we recommend to conduct a systematic approach with 4 steps of global guidelines assessment, systematic literature review, experts' consensus and draft implementation, as well as implementation evaluation and periodic update in constructing and implementing evidence-based CPGs for HCC.