In China, with fast economic growth, health and nutrition status among the rural population has shown significant improvement in the past decades. On the other hand, burden of non-communicable diseases and prevalence of related risk factors such as overweight and obesity has also increased. Among rural children, the double burden of malnutrition and emerging overweight and obesity has been neglected so far. According to the theory of Developmental Origin of Health and Diseases (DOHaD), malnutrition, including both undernutrition (stunting and wasting) and over-nutrition (overweight and obesity) during childhood is closely related to worsened health outcomes during adulthood. Such a neglected problem is attributable to a complicated synergy of social and environmental factors such as parental migration, financial situation of the household, child-rearing knowledge and practices of the primary caregivers, and has implications for public health. Based on literature review of lessons from the field, intervention to address malnutrition among rural children should be a comprehensive package, with consideration of their developmental environment and geographical and socioeconomic diversity. The scientific evidence on DOHaD indicates the probability and necessity of prevention of adult disease by promotion of maternal and child health and reducing malnutrition by provision of high-quality complementary foods, promotion of a well-balanced dietary pattern, and promotion of health literacy in the public would bring a potential benefit to reduce potential risk of diseases.
Rare diseases are rarely conditions that are often debilitating and even life-threatening, which was identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) with a prevalence of 0.65-1‰. 5,000-7,000 rare diseases are thought to exist, which account for around 10% of diseases for individuals worldwide. It is estimated that over 10 million people were patients with rare disease in China. During the past years, public awareness of rare diseases has in fact heightened with the launching of campaigns by patients' organizations and spontaneous efforts by members of the public, not only in developed countries and regions including United States of America (USA), the European Union (EU), and in Japan, but also in China. However, the features of missed or delayed diagnosis, shortage of effective drugs, and the high cost of currently available drugs for rare diseases make it an important public health issue and a challenge to medical care worldwide. To combat rare disease, the government should assume the responsibility of taking on the important task of promoting the sustained development of a system of medical care for and research into rare diseases. Government-funded special biomedical research programs in the USA, EU, and Japan may serve as a reference for China coping with rare diseases. The government-funded special biomedical research programs consisting of leading clinicians and researchers to enhance basic and applied research on rare diseases were expected to be launched in China.
We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and risk factors of leukopenia and thrombocytopenia among Chinese adults with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS. One thousand nine hundred and forty-eight newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients were enrolled between 2009 and 2010. Serum samples obtained from each individual were collected for complete blood count. Factors associated with the presence of leukopenia and thrombocytopenia were analyzed by multiple logistic regression. The overall prevalence of leukopenia and of thrombocytopenia was 33.2% and 15.6%, respectively. The prevalence of leukopenia was higher among females than among males (39.4% versus 31.2%). The prevalence of leukopenia increased with decreasing CD4 count (8.2%, 26.5%, 33.4%, and 41.5% among patients with CD4 count of ≥ 350, 200-349, 50-199, and < 50 cells/mm3 respectively). The prevalence of thrombocytopenia also showed an increasing trend with decreasing CD4 count (5.8%, 12.2%, 17.8%, and 17.5% among patients with CD4 count of ≥ 350, 200-349, 50-199, and < 50 cells/mm3, respectively). Logistic analysis showed that female sex, lower CD4 count, and Han ethnicity were significantly associated with an increased risk of leukopenia, and that lower CD4 count, and HIV transmission by blood were significantly associated with an increased risk of thrombocytopenia. The study reflects that leukopenia and thrombocytopenia are common among Chinese adults with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS; and lower CD4 count is associated with an increased risk of both leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. We propose that a routine assessment of these parameters is necessary for timely and adequate clinical management.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains a major public health problem. The objective of the current study was to reveal the seroepidemiology of HCV in the general population in Mianyang City. This study collected 438,575 blood samples from participants who had enrolled in the National Science and Technology Development Project and their demographic information, and then evaluated HCV antibody and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. The overall anti-HCV positive rate was 0.80% (3,491/438,575) in the Mianyang general population, and it was 1.19% in rural population and 0.20% in urban. Anti-HCV positive rate increased with age, peaked at 45-54 years (2.01%), and then decreased. Anti-HCV prevalence was higher in males (0.89%) than that in females (0.73%). The prevalence of anti-HCV in participants with a history of blood transfusion, surgery, or with a previous diagnosis of hypertension was higher. The abnormal ALT levels (> 40 IU/L) were observed in 50.11% and 7.74% of anti-HCV positive and negative groups, respectively. In anti-HCV positive groups, the rate of abnormal ALT levels was higher in 55-64 age groups, male, and rural population. Though Mianyang was a low endemic area for HCV infection, the alarming fact was the large number of abnormal ALT levels in patients related to hepatitis C. This revealed delayed diagnosis and treatment of HCV infections. It is a necessity to promote early diagnosis and timely treatment of HCV infections.
This study aims to compare contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CEMRI) for the detection and characterization of hepatic hemangiomas. Included in this retrospective study were 83 histopathologically confirmed lesions of hemangioma in 66 hospitalized patients who underwent both CEUS and CEMRI and received surgery. The enhancement patterns on CEUS and CEMRI in each lesion were compared and analyzed. In addition, data obtained by the two modalities were then compared with the pathological findings to determine their value in differential diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas. CEUS diagnosed 78 lesions of hemangioma against 80 by CEMRI. There were no statistical significant differences in the diagnostic value between CEUS and CEMRI in terms of sensitivity (88.0% vs. 92.8%), specificity (99.0% vs. 99.4%), accuracy (97.3% vs. 98.4%), positive predictive value (93.6% vs. 96.3%), and negative predictive value (98.0% vs. 98.8%) (p > 0.05, all). In the arterial phase, the main enhancement pattern on both CEUS and CEMRI was peripheral nodular enhancement (73 vs. 76), but lesions with diffuse enhancement on CEUS outnumbered those on CEMRI (3 vs. 1) and lesions with circular enhancement on CEMRI outnumbered those on CEUS (3 vs. 2). In the portal venous phase and delayed phase, the main enhancement pattern was hyperechoic change on CEUS and hyperintense on CEMRI (66 vs. 65), some lesions presented isoechoic change (12 vs. 15). These results suggested CEUS, an equivalent to CEMRI, may have an added diagnostic value in hemangiomas.
In this study, we investigate the relationship of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and autophagy. HepG2 cells and HepG2 cells infected with HBV (HepG2.2.15) were transfected with GFP-LC3 (green fluorescence protein conjugated with microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3) expression vector and autophagy status was then examined with confocal microscope. HepG2.2.15 cells were further treated with serum-free medium or 3-methyladenine (3-MA), and subjected to Hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg), Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), or hepatitis B polymerase protein detection by immunohistochemistry. Localization of the GFP-LC3 and the HBV proteins was observed by confocal fluorescence microscope. The level of SQSTM1/p62 protein was also evaluated by Western blot analysis. In contrast to a diffuse distribution in HepG2 cells, GFP-LC3 formed distinct punctate dots, which were further enhanced by nutritional starvation, in HepG2.2.15 cells. The expression of hepatitis B polymerase and HBcAg, but not HBsAg, was positively correlated with the autophagic intensity. However, no co-localizations were observed between HBV proteins and autophagosomes. Suppression of autophagy reduced the expression of hepatitis B polymerase and HBcAg, but not HBsAg. Western blot showed that SQSTM1/p62 protein level was declined in HepG2.2.15 cells comparing HepG2 cells, and further reduced while upon serum starvation. In conclusion, HBV infection induces autophagic degradation and autophagy. Autophagy is critical for HBV replication. However HBV replication does not take place in autophagosomes.
The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of C35, an oncogene previously found in breast and prostate cancers, and its clinicopathological significance in colorectal cancer (CRC). Qualitative and quantitative detection of C35 mRNA expression was performed using reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR. C35 protein expression was determined using immunohistochemistry. C35 mRNA was detected in none of 10 normal colorectal tissue samples, 55 of 65 (84.6%) CRC tissue samples, and 43 of 55 (78.2%) adjacent non-cancerous tissue samples. In addition, the level of C35 mRNA in CRC tissue samples was markedly higher than that in tumor adjacent non-cancerous tissue samples. C35 protein expression was detected in 58 of 80 (72.5%) CRC tissue samples and was closely associated with tumor serosal invasion, lymphnode metastasis, and an advanced Dukes stage. These results suggest that C35 might serve as a biomarker or therapeutic target for management of CRC.
There is an increasing recognition that beneficial effects of adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) therapy may depend largely on the secretion of multiple growth factors. This study modified ADSCs with the Bcl-2 gene in order to increase the secretion of growth factors during oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). The phenotypes of human ADSCs that were passaged 4 times were analyzed using flow cytometry. Then, ADSCs were genetically modified with Bcl-2 and Bcl-2 gene transduction was verified with Western blotting. Proliferative capacity and multipotent differentiation properties were evaluated in Bcl-2-modified ADSCs. Secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was evaluated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) during OGD. Human ADSCs that were passaged 4 times expressed stem cell-associated markers but not a fibroblast marker or a hematopoietic stem cell marker. The Bcl-2 gene was efficiently transfected into ADSCs; Bcl-2 modification did not affect the proliferative and multilineage differentiation capacity of ADSCs. In addition, Bcl-2 overexpression enhanced the secretion of VEGF, bFGF, and HGF by 14.47%, 16.9%, and 91%, respectively, compared to ADSCs alone that were deprived of oxygen and glucose. These data suggest that Bcl-2 overexpression enhances secretion of angiogenic growth factors by ADSCs deprived of oxygen and glucose.
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of increasing intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) on stroke volume variation (SVV) and plethysmographic variability index (PVI) in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PVI examined by Masimo Radical 7 pulse oximeter and SVV determined using FloTrac/Vigileo were monitored simultaneously in forty-five patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), cardiac index (CI), perfusion index (PI), airway pressures (P), SVV, and PVI were also recorded at the following predetermined time: 5 min after endotracheal intubation (T1), 5 min after pneumoperitoneum at 5 mmHg (T2), 5 min after pneumoperitoneum at 10 mmHg (T3), 5 min after pneumoperitoneum at 15 mmHg (T4), and 5 min after the termination of pneumoperitoneum (T5). Forty-five patients with a total of 225 pairs of measurements were included in the analysis. Compared with the values at T1, both SVV and PVI showed significant progressive increases as the IAP was adjusted from 5 to 10, 15 mmHg at T2, T3, and T4, respectively. No significant difference was found when the pneumoperitoneum was terminated at T5. Further regressive analysis indicated strong relationships between SVV and IAP (r = 0.8118, p < 0.001), PVI and IAP(r = 0.8876, p < 0.001) respectively. Both PVI and SVV showed rapid and IAP correlative changes with increasing intra-abdominal pressure in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Over the past few years, genetically modified organisms (GMO) have gradually become more familiar after numerous reports of problems with GMO safety, such as genetically modified (GM) potatoes disrupting immunity, GM corn inducing tumors, and GM rice being fed to unwitting Chinese children. Every time, these reports cause panic among the population and lead to objections to GMO in various fora. After each incident, the scientific community has delivered its academic appraisal and refuted rumors through slow and cautious investigations and evaluations. Unfortunately, during each event media outlets quickly scare the public about food safety and ignore the ensuing comments from scientists. Although scientists have investigated each GMO crisis and reached scientific and rational conclusions, they have less ability to disseminate information than the media, so the public is not promptly informed of their rational and objective viewpoints as experts. Thus, scientists need greater ability to disseminate information from scientific investigations and evaluations in order to correct the intemperate reporting by attention-seeking media.