Trisha Brown, who is a founding member of Judson Dance Theater, has been interested in the relation between the moving body and the surrounding space—the space not only as room in which the body moves but also as device which instructs and inspires the body how to move. As the minimalist object is the function of the space, her dance is highly influenced by the condition of what is surrounding the body. The aim of this paper is to focus on this relation examining her different but connecting two fields of practice that is to say dance and drawing. Many of Brown's drawings are drawn with one stroke, where the line on paper is the trace of continuous movement of body. The aesthetical criteria look less important. Nevertheless the eye plays leading role there, because some rules concerning the points to pass are given. The hand led by eyes must choose one point to pass among the apexes of imaginary grid each time. This game-like drawing keeps her conscious of present. The same approach can be seen in her dance piece. In Locus (1975), Brown invented “Imaginary cube.” The dancer is at the center of Imaginary cube and touches each apexes according to the given order. By doing so, she unexpectedly leave dance between two apexes. The rule is not in dancer but in space, and the dancer keeps referring to the cube around her. Dancer's body is now free of role of expressing any idea. On the other hand, Imaginary cube works as tool to invent choreography. Since 1979, Brown has given performances at theater with proscenium arch. She questions the theatrical space and tries to turn its stressing atmosphere into advantage. For example she invents the floor pattern according to which one dancer's movement interferes with another dancer's movement. The space with some rules can be used as device to make dance.
In South-Sardinian public round dance, traditionally accompanied by launeddas or indigenous triple-clarinet, the dancers have emphasized an aesthetical value with the expression, “to dance according to the music.” This article argues how the dancers make out or recognize the music and choose their steps, clarifying the dynamic correlation between dance and music in the launeddas dance. As part of my fieldwork, an analysis was done of dance steps of Ierzu village, and revealed that the foregoing aesthetical judgment implies the following three points; metrical synchronization between dance and music, selection of steps appropriate to the pichiada, melody-type based on which various phrases will be improvised, and change of step with the transition of one pichiada to the following. The launeddas dance and the music have been inseparably developed in public dance circles. Their reciprocal structure characterizes the performance; the dancers choose steps following the music while the musician varies his performance seeing the dancers' condition or demands. The interaction between dancers and musician, sometimes conversational sometimes competitive, makes the performance dynamic and entertaining. It is this dynamism that makes the launeddas dance artistic.
The objective of this article is a reassessment of the year 1959, which has been considered as the first year of Ankoku Butoh because of the première of “Kinjiki (The Forbidden Colours)” by Tatsumi Hijikata, and of the facts surrounding the inception of Ankoku Butoh from the perspective of Hijikata's contemporary Kazuo Ohno. On the premise of Ohno's artistic endeavor and style as a modern dancer, there had been a considerable amount of inspiration from paintings and literature in his creative processes especially in this era. Ohno had been in his exploratory phase since 1954. Recently discovered letters of Ohno reveal his artistic ambition and intention for the 1959 staging of “The Old Man and the Sea, ” which was adopted from Ernest Hemingway novel. According to these letters, this dance piece was a faithful rendition of the original story, and it was not an experimental and avant-garde work that had been gradually gaining popularity at that time. Instead, it was a modern dance with a leaning toward the expressionism that had been beginning to take root in the post World War II Japan, following the wake of pre-war heritage. Ohno had been engaged in self-exploration for a long time, because he thought that the internal motivation of the self was indispensable for creating movements and expressions. In this dance piece, however, Ohno's acquired modern dance techniques and the impulsive imagery in his psyche came to a rupture, and the performance was a failure. Tatsumi Hijikata had been aware of Ohno's uncompromising self-exploration and inherent talent as a dancer from his early career. The encounter between Hijikata and Ohno is considered to have taken place during the mid 1950s. It was a definitive turning point not only for Ohno, but also for Hijikata's conception of Ankoku Butoh. Specifically, only one month after the staging of “The Old Man and the Sea, ” which Hijikata had taken part as an assistant director, Hijikata created the basic concept of “Kinjiki” and decided to cast Ohno's son Yoshito. The modern dance piece “The Old Man and the Sea” by Kazuo Ohno precipitated the emergence of Ankoku Butoh, and by severing Ohno from modern dance lineage, installed him as a critical counterpart in the germination of Hijikata's Ankoku Butoh.
This paper intends to reappreciate Gasparo Angiolini (1731-1803)'s view of ballet d'action comparing with Jean=Georges Noverre. Close reading of his letters (Lettere di Gasparo Angiolini à Monsieur Noverre sopra i balli pantomimi (1773)) shows that Angiolini's view on the connection of each scene is quite clear; the plot should be the conduct principle. Angiolini thinks that the story should be told only by the means of ‘pas’, the language of ballet, then the libretto is not necessary for its representation. On this point, Angiolini's claim on the narrativity of ballet seems to be much more thorough than that of Noverre. Yet in pursuance of ballet d'action, Angiolini recognizes the ambiguity of the meaning of ballet language compared with spoken language. He thinks ballet language as a kind of sign, and values the ambiguity as its uniqueness. This recognition leads him to the valuation of ‘pas’ as movement itself, and Noverre also shares this idea; it seems to be quite close to our idea of so-called ‘pure dance’. In these senses, Angiolini's view provides us the right point of reference for reconsidering the assertion of ballet d'action, and still holds the significance in the history of ballet.
Kwonbon is one of the systems transplanted from Japan to Korea during colony period and had been maintained from 1908 to 1942 under the governance of Japan. Kwonbon is mostly in charge of business management and art education for Geisha. Kwonbon system in Japan like this was applied to Korea in almost the same form with a policy. Kiseng, that is Female artists from the Palace and the Government, is an object. Kiseng during colony period had made a living and had kept traditional music and dance. Kwonbon had been completely disappeared around 1950's. However traditional dancers who have been lived in those periods testifies that numerous Korean traditional dancer including those who have important intangible cultural assets were educated at Kwonbon. This study focuses on how Kwonbon in Japan was transplanted and had rooted in Joseon (Korea), what was the details of education for Kiseng, and what kind of dance was educated. First of all, as a background of Kiseng education at Kwonbon, history from the introduction of Kiseng Union whose predecessor to the establishment of Kwonbon is reviewed and the role of Kwonbon as an administrative organization is summarized. From the examples of Seven Kwonbon in each area, basic Kiseng education and teacher, and details of dance education are studied.
The experience in mass dance emerges from the interaction among dancing people through the perception and execution of movements and sounds. From the ancient ritual to the contemporary raves, a typical form of mass dance is recognized as the repetition of unison movement. Absorbed in the rhythmical sequence, one may even reach the experience of trance. This strong emotional engagement in mass dance consists of several neuropsychological stages; i) motor entrainment to the external rhythm which was generated by the bodily movement of other dancers and/or musical accompaniment, ii) emotional contagion to others, and iii) the culmination to ecstatic state through the repetition of movement. Each stage has the neural correlate of its experience. Motor entrainment via visual interaction between subjects is thought to be processed in the mirror neuron system (MNS). The neural correlates of empathy may also involve MNS as well as cortical midline structures (CMS) which are concerned with representing the self. Emotional contagion may occur under an altered state of consciousness, in which the functional derangement of cortical-subcortical neural networks of CMS is thought to be involved. Finally, the strong emotional experience can be attributed to the function of reward system, especially orbitofrontal cortex which can be related to the social intimacy and hedonic experience during dancing with others. The psychopharmacological effects of 3, 4-methylenedioxymet hamphetamine (MDMA) on both rats and humans facilitate the social communication, and may even potentiate hedonic experience by modulating the function of the orbitofrontal cortex. The mechanism of MNS and CMS thus provides neural substrate to motor entrainment to perceived external stimuli and emotional contagion. The ultimate experience in mass dance is thus hypothesized to be a product of the activation of the reward-related mechanism, motor entrainment, and emotional contagion. To elucidate in depth the neural correlates of mass dance, new research methods including neuroimaging techniques should be established.