Background:Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) may impair outcomes of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The extent of this phenomenon and its mechanisms are unclear.
Methods and Results:This study prospectively included 50 consecutive STEMI patients admitted to our center for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at the peak of the Italian COVID-19 outbreak. At admission, a COVID-19 test was positive in 24 patients (48%), negative in 26 (52%). The primary endpoint was in-hospital all-cause mortality. Upon admission, COVID-19 subjects had lower PO2/FiO2 (169 [100–425] vs. 390 [302–477], P<0.01), more need for oxygen support (62.5% vs. 26.9%, P=0.02) and a higher rate of myocardial dysfunction (ejection fraction <30% in 45.8% vs. 19.2%, P=0.04). All patients underwent emergency angiography. In 12.5% of COVID-19 patients, no culprit lesions were detected, thus PCI was performed in 87.5% and 100% of COVID-19 positive and negative patients, respectively (P=0.10). Despite a higher rate of obstinate thrombosis in the COVID-19 group (47.6% vs. 11.5%, P<0.01), the PCI result was similar (TIMI 2-3 in 90.5% vs. 100%, P=0.19). In-hospital mortality was 41.7% and 3.8% in COVID-19 positive and negative patients, respectively (P<0.01). Respiratory failure was the leading cause of death (80%) in the COVID-19 group, frequently associated with severe myocardial dysfunction.
Conclusions:In-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients with STEMI remains high despite successful PCI, mainly due to coexisting severe respiratory failure. This may be a critical factor in patient management and treatment selection.
Background:The impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on long-term outcomes following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the era of modern primary PCI with optimal medical therapy is still in debate.
Methods and Results:A total of 3,281 patients with AMI were enrolled in the J-MINUET registry, with primary PCI of 93.1% in STEMI. CKD stage on admission was classified into: no CKD (eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2); moderate CKD (60>eGFR≥30 mL/min/1.73 m2); and severe CKD (eGFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m2). While the primary endpoint was all-cause mortality, the secondary endpoint was major adverse cardiac events (MACE), defined as a composite of all-cause death, cardiac failure, myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Of the 3,281 patients, 1,878 had no CKD, 1,073 had moderate CKD and 330 had severe CKD. Pre-person-days age- and sex-adjusted in-hospital mortality significantly increased from 0.014% in no CKD through 0.042% in moderate CKD to 0.084% in severe CKD (P<0.0001). Three-year mortality and MACE significantly deteriorated from 5.09% and 15.8% in no CKD through 16.3% and 38.2% in moderate CKD to 36.7% and 57.9% in severe CKD, respectively (P<0.0001). C-index significantly increased from the basic model of 0.815 (0.788–0.841) to 0.831 (0.806–0.857), as well as 0.731 (0.708–0.755) to 0.740 (0.717–0.764) when adding CKD stage to the basic model in predicting 3-year mortality (P=0.013; net reclassification improvement [NRI] 0.486, P<0.0001) and MACE (P=0.046; NRI 0.331, P<0.0001) respectively.
Conclusions:CKD remains a useful predictor of in-hospital and 3-year mortality as well as MACE after AMI in the modern PCI and optimal medical therapy era.
Background:This study aimed to calculate incidence rates (IR) of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) including acute myocardial infarction (AMI), unstable angina (UAP), and sudden cardiac death (SCD) in Nobeoka city, Japan.
Methods and Results:This was an observational study based on a city-wide comprehensive registration between 2015 and 2017 in Nobeoka city, Japan, using 2 databases: all patients with cardiogenic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Nobeoka city and hospitalized ACS patients from Miyazaki Prefectural Nobeoka Hospital in which all ACS patients in Nobeoka city were hospitalized except for possible rare cases of patients highly unlikely to be hospitalized elsewhere. The IRs of ACS based on the population size of Nobeoka city (125,000 persons), and their age-adjusted IRs by using the direct method and the 2015 model population of Japan were calculated. There were 260 eligible patients hospitalized with first-onset ACS (age [SD]=71.1 [12.4], 34.2% women) and 107 eligible SCD patients. Crude IRs of hospitalized ACS and SCD patients, and hospitalized AMI and SCD patients, respectively, were 130.2 (183.3 for men, 85.6 for women) and 107.5 (148.4 for men, 73.2 for women) per 100,000. Crude IRs of hospitalized ACS, AMI, and UAP patients, respectively, were 92.3 (132.8 for men, 58.1 for women), 69.6 (97.9 for men, 45.7 for women), and 22.7 (35.0 for men, 12.4 for women) per 100,000.
Conclusions:The calculated IRs can be useful in building a health strategy for treating ACS.
Background:Three-dimensional (3D) speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) after ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) is associated with left ventricular (LV) remodeling and 1-year prognosis. This study investigated the clinical significance of 3D-STE in predicting the long-term prognosis of patients with STEMI.
Methods and Results:A total of 270 patients (mean age 64.6 years) with first-time STEMI treated with reperfusion therapy were enrolled. At 24 h after admission, standard 2D echocardiography and 3D full-volume imaging were performed, and 2D-STE and 3D-STE were calculated. Patients were followed up for a median of 119 months (interquartile range: 96–129 months). The primary endpoint was occurrence of a major adverse cardiac event (MACE: cardiac death, heart failure with hospitalization), and 64 patients experienced MACEs. Receiver operating characteristic curves and Cox hazard multivariate analysis showed that the 3D-STE indices were stronger predictors of MACE compared with those of 2D-STE. Additionally, 3D-global longitudinal strain (GLS) was the strongest predictor for MACE followed by 3D-global circumferential strain (GCS). The Kaplan-Meier curve demonstrated that 3D-GLS >−11.0 was an independent predictor for MACE (log-rank χ2=132.2, P<0.0001). When combined with 3D-GCS >−18.3, patients with higher values of 3D-GLS and 3D-GCS were found to be at extremely high risk for MACE.
Conclusions:Global strain measured by 3D-STE immediately after the onset of STEMI is a clinically significant predictor of 10-year prognosis.
Background:This study investigated whether the percentage change (%Δ) in the eicosapentaenoic acid to arachidonic acid (EPA/AA) ratio is associated with cardiovascular event rates among acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients receiving contemporary lipid-lowering therapy other than polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).
Methods and Results:This post hoc subanalysis of the HIJ-PROPER study included PUFA-naïve patients for whom EPA/AA ratio data were available at baseline and after 3 months. Patients were categorized into 2 groups based on the median %ΔEPA/AA ratio: Group 1, change less than the median; and Group 2, change greater than or equal to the median. The 3-year rates of the primary endpoint, a composite of all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, and unstable angina pectoris, were compared between the 2 groups. The median %ΔEPA/AA ratio in Groups 1 and 2 was −26.2% (n=482 patients [49.9%]) and 42.2% (n=483 patients [50.1%]), respectively. At the 3-year follow-up, the occurrence of the primary endpoint was significantly lower in Group 2 than in Group 1 (29/483 [6.0%] vs. 53/482 [11.0%]; hazard ratio 0.53, 95% confidence interval 0.33–0.82; P=0.005). The same trend was observed after adjusting for patient factors (P=0.02).
Conclusions:Among ACS patients receiving contemporary lipid-lowering therapy other than PUFAs, a greater change in the EPA/AA ratio was associated with a lower incidence of cardiovascular events.
Background:Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) hospital survivors experience a wide array of late adverse cardiac events, despite considerable advances in the quality of care. We investigated 30-day and 1-year outcomes of ACS hospital survivors using a Japanese nationwide cohort.
Methods and Results:We studied 20,042 ACS patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in 2017: 10,242 (51%) with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), 3,027 (15%) with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), and 6,773 (34%) with unstable angina (UA). The mean (±SD) age was 69.6±12.4 years, 77% of the patients were men, and 20% had a previous history of PCI. The overall 30-day all-cause, cardiac, and non-cardiac mortality rates were 3.0%, 2.4%, and 0.6%, respectively. The overall 1-year incidence of all-cause, cardiac, and non-cardiac death was 7.1%, 4.2%, and 2.8%, respectively. Compared with UA patients, STEMI patients had a higher risk of all fatal events, non-fatal ischemic stroke, and acute heart failure, and NSTEMI patients had a higher risk of heart failure.
Conclusions:The results from our ACS hospital survivor PCI database suggest the need to improve care for the acute myocardial infarction population to lessen the burden of 30-day mortality due to ACS, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death, as well as 1-year ischemic stroke and heart failure events.
Background:The slow-flow/no-reflow phenomenon and impaired ST segment resolution (STR) following primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) predict unfavorable prognosis and are characterized by obstruction of the coronary microvascular. Several predictors of slow-flow/no-reflow have been revealed, but few studies have investigated predictors of slow-flow/no-reflow and STR exclusively in acute myocardial infarction patients with initial Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) Grade 0.
Methods and Results:In all, 279 STEMI patients with initial TIMI Grade 0 were enrolled in the study. Slow-flow/no-reflow was defined as TIMI Grade <3 by angiography after PCI, and impaired STR was defined as STR <50% on an electrocardiogram after PCI. Slow-flow/no-reflow was observed in 31 patients. In multivariate analysis, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; odds ratio [OR] 0.97; P=0.007), a history of cerebrovascular disease (OR 4.65, P=0.007), time to recanalization ≥4 h (OR 2.76, P=0.023), and systolic blood pressure ≤90 mmHg (OR 3.45, P=0.046) were independent predictors of slow-flow/no-reflow. Impaired STR was observed in 102 of 248 patients with TIMI Grade 3. In multivariate analysis, eGFR (OR 0.94, P<0.001) and occlusion of the left anterior descending artery (OR 4.48, P<0.001) were independent predictors of impaired STR; eGFR was the only independent predictor of both slow-flow/no-reflow and impaired STR.
Conclusions:Renal dysfunction may be related to coronary microvascular dysfunction and obstruction.
Background:Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides valuable information to guide percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) regarding lesion preparation, stent sizing, and optimization. The aim of the present study was to compare lumen expansion of stent-treated lesions immediately after the procedure for ACS between OCT-guided PCI and angiography-guided PCI.
Methods and Results:This study investigated stent-treated lesions immediately after PCI for ACS by using quantitative coronary angiography in 390 patients; 260 patients with OCT-guided PCI and 130 patients with angiography-guided PCI. Before stenting, the frequency of pre-dilatation and thrombus aspiration were not different between the OCT-guided and angiography-guided PCI groups. Stent diameter was significantly larger as a result of OCT-guided PCI (3.11±0.44 mm vs. 2.99±0.45 mm, P=0.011). In post-dilatation, balloon pressure-up (48% vs. 31%, P=0.001) and balloon diameter-up (33% vs. 6%, P<0.001) were more frequently performed in the OCT-guided PCI group. Minimum lumen diameter (2.55±0.35 mm vs. 2.13±0.50 mm, P<0.001) and acute lumen gain (2.18±0.54 mm vs. 1.72±0.63 mm, P<0.001) were significantly larger in the OCT-guided PCI group. Percent diameter stenosis (14±4% vs. 24±10%, P<0.001) and percent area stenosis (15±5% vs. 35±17%, P<0.001) were significantly smaller in the OCT-guided PCI group.
Conclusions:OCT-guided PCI potentially results in larger lumen expansion of stent-treated lesions immediately after PCI in the treatment of ACS compared with angiography-guided PCI.
Background:Data regarding the clinical features, outcomes and prognostic factors in patients presenting with acute total/subtotal occlusion of the unprotected left main coronary artery (LMCA) remain limited.
Methods and Results:From a multi-center registry, 134 patients due to acute total/subtotal occlusion of the unprotected LMCA were reviewed. Emergency room (ER) status classification was defined according to the presence of cardiogenic shock and cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) in the ER (class 1=no cardiogenic shock; class 2= cardiogenic shock but not CPA; and class 3=CPA). In-hospital mortality and cerebral performance category (CPC) as the endpoints were evaluated. One-half (67/134) of the enrolled patients presented with total occlusion of the unprotected LMCA. Regarding ER status classification, class 1, 2, and 3 were observed in 30.6%, 45.5%, and 23.9% of the patients, respectively. In-hospital mortality occurred in 73 (54.5%) patients; of the remaining patients, 52 (85.3%) could be discharged with a CPC 1 or 2. ER status classification (odds ratio 4.4 [95% confidence interval: 2.33–10.67]; P<0.001) and total occlusion of the unprotected LMCA (odds ratio 8.29 [95% confidence interval 2.93–23.46]; P<0.001) were strong predictors of in-hospital mortality.
Conclusions:Acute total/subtotal occlusion involving the unprotected LMCA appeared to be associated with high in-hospital mortality. ER status classification and initial flow in the unprotected LMCA were significant predictive factors of in-hospital mortality.
Background:The high mortality of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with cardiogenic shock (i.e., Killip class IV AMI) remains a challenge in emergency cardiovascular care. This study aimed to examine institutional factors, including the number of JCS board-certified members, that are independently associated with the prognosis of Killip class IV AMI patients.
Methods and Results:In the Japanese registry of all cardiac and vascular diseases-diagnosis procedure combination (JROAD-DPC) database (years 2012–2016), the 30-day mortality of Killip class IV AMI patients (n=21,823) was 42.3%. Multivariate analysis identified age, female sex, admission by ambulance, deep coma, and cardiac arrest as patient factors that were independently associated with higher 30-day mortality, and the numbers of JCS board-certified members and of intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) cases per year as institutional factors that were independently associated with lower mortality in Killip class IV patients, although IABP was associated with higher mortality in Killip classes I–III patients. Among hospitals with the highest quartile (≥9 JCS board-certified members), the 30-day mortality of Killip class IV patients was 37.4%.
Conclusions:A higher numbers of JCS board-certified members was associated with better survival of Killip class IV AMI patients. This finding may provide a clue to optimizing local emergency medical services for better management of AMI patients in Japan.
Background:Intravascular polarization-sensitive optical frequency domain imaging (PS-OFDI) offers a novel approach to measure tissue birefringence, which is elevated in collagen and smooth muscle cells, that in turn plays a critical role in healing coronary thrombus (HCT). This study aimed to quantitatively assess polarization properties of coronary fresh and organizing thrombus with PS-OFDI in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
Methods and Results:The POLARIS-I prospective registry enrolled 32 patients with ACS. Pre-procedural PS-OFDI pullbacks using conventional imaging catheters revealed 26 thrombus-regions in 21 patients. Thrombus was manually delineated in conventional OFDI cross-sections separated by 0.5 mm and categorized into fresh thrombus caused by plaque rupture, stent thrombosis, or erosion in 18 thrombus-regions (182 frames) or into HCT for 8 thrombus-regions (141 frames). Birefringence of coronary thrombus was compared between the 2 categories. Birefringence in HCTs was significantly higher than in fresh thrombus (∆n=0.47 (0.37–0.72) vs. ∆n=0.25 (0.17–0.29), P=0.007). In a subgroup analysis, when only using thrombus-regions from culprit lesions, ischemic time was a significant predictor for birefringence (ß (∆n)=0.001 per hour, 95% CI [0.0002–0.002], P=0.023).
Conclusions:Intravascular PS-OFDI offers the opportunity to quantitatively assess the polarimetric properties of fresh and organizing coronary thrombus, providing new insights into vascular healing and plaque stability.
Background:Smoking is an important risk factor of plaque erosion. This study aimed to investigate the predictors of plaque erosion in current and non-current smokers presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).
Methods and Results:A total of 1,320 STEMI patients with culprit plaque rupture or plaque erosion detected by pre-intervention optical coherence tomography were divided into a current smoking group (n=715) and non-current smoking group (n=605). Plaque erosion accounted for 30.8% (220/715) of culprit lesions in the current smokers and 21.2% (128/605) in the non-current smokers. Multivariable analysis showed age <50 years, single-vessel disease and the absence of dyslipidemia were independently associated with plaque erosion rather than plaque rupture, regardless of smoking status. In current smokers, diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR]: 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.10–0.83; P=0.021) was negatively associated with plaque erosion as compared with plaque rupture. In non-current smokers, minimal lumen area (MLA, OR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.16–1.62; P<0.001) and nearby bifurcation (OR: 3.20; 95% CI: 1.98–5.16; P<0.001) were positively related to plaque erosion, but not plaque rupture.
Conclusions:In patients with STEMI, the presence of diabetes mellitus significantly increased the risk of rupture-based STEMI but may not have reduced the risk of plaque erosion-based STEMI in current smokers. Nearby bifurcation and larger MLA were associated with plaque erosion in non-current smokers.
Background:Although there is an apparent rapid and spontaneous recovery of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in patients with Takotsubo syndrome (TTS), recent studies have demonstrated a long-lasting functional impairment in those patients. The present study sought to evaluate the predictors of incomplete recovery following TTS and its impact on cardiovascular mortality.
Methods and Results:Patients with TTS between 2008 and 2018 were retrospectively enrolled at 3 different institutions. After exclusion of in-hospital deaths, 407 patients were split into 2 subgroups according to whether their LVEF was >50% (recovery group; n=341), or ≤50% (incomplete recovery group; n=66) at the chronic phase. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that LVEF (odds ratio [OR]: 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.91–0.98; P<0.001) and C-reactive protein levels (OR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.02–1.22; P=0.02) at discharge were independent predictors of incomplete recovery. At a median follow up of 52 days, a higher cardiovascular mortality was evident in the incomplete recovery group (16% vs. 0.6%; P<0.001).
Conclusions:This study demonstrated that incomplete recovery after TTS is characterized by residual systemic inflammation and an increased cardiac mortality at follow up. Altogether, the present study findings determined that patients with persistent inflammation are a high-risk subgroup, and should be targeted in future clinical trials with specific therapies to attenuate inflammation.
Background:This study aimed to clarify the incidence of takotsubo syndrome (TTS) after the Great East Japan earthquake (GEJ-E) between inland and coastal areas.
Methods and Results:Consecutive hospitalized patients with TTS were registered between 2009 and 2016 in Iwate Prefecture. Patients were divided into 2 groups, by whether they lived inland or in the coastal area (both max. seismic intensity, 6−). The incidence of TTS was calculated using the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) before and after the earthquake. The long-term prognosis of the 2 groups was compared by Kaplan-Meier analysis. A total of 112 patients with TTS were registered from the acute coronary syndrome records of each hospital (n=4,163); 9 patients with TTS were registered within 2 months of the earthquake. A significant monthly variation was observed in March and April 2011 compared with the other months (P=0.029). At 2 years after the earthquake, the SIR was significantly increased in the coastal area (P<0.01), but decreased after ≥3 years. There were no significant differences in the long-term prognosis between the 2 groups (P=0.20).
Conclusions:The incidence of TTS was increased in the acute phase after the GEJ-E, particularly in the coastal area. The magnitude of the tsunami damage is presumed to be a factor in the increased incidence of TTS, even though the seismic intensity in both areas was comparable.
Background:The effect of in-hospital rapid cooling by intravenous ice-cold fluids for comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is unclear.
Methods and Results:From the J-PULSE-HYPO study registry, data for 248 comatose survivors with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) who were treated with therapeutic hypothermia (34℃ for 12–72 h) after witnessed shockable OHCA were extracted. Patients were divided into 2 groups by the median collapse-to-ROSC interval (18 min), and then into 2 groups by cooling method (rapid cooling by intravenous ice-cold fluids vs. standard cooling). The primary endpoint was favorable neurological outcome (Cerebral Performance Category of 1 or 2) at 30 days after OHCA. In the whole cohort, the shorter collapse-to-ROSC interval group had significantly higher favorable neurological outcome than the longer collapse-to-ROSC interval group (78.2% vs. 46.8%, P<0.001). In the shorter collapse-to-ROSC interval group, no significant difference was observed in favorable neurological outcome between the 2 cooling groups (rapid cooling group: 79.4% vs. standard cooling group: 77.0%, P=0.75). In the longer collapse-to-ROSC interval group, however, favorable neurological outcome was significant higher in the rapid cooling group than in the standard cooling group (60.7% vs. 33.3%, P<0.01) and the adjusted odds ratio after rapid cooling was 3.069 (95% confidence interval 1.423–6.616, P=0.004).
Conclusions:In-hospital rapid cooling by intravenous ice-cold fluids improved neurologically intact survival in comatose survivors whose collapse-to-ROSC interval was delayed over 18 min after shockable OHCA.
Background:The aim of our study was to investigate in detail the temporal trends in in-hospital characteristics, actual management, and survival, including neurological status, among adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients in recent years.
Methods and Results:From the prospective database of the Comprehensive Registry of Intensive Care for OHCA Survival (CRITICAL) study in Osaka, Japan, we enrolled all OHCA patients aged ≥18 years for whom resuscitation was attempted, and who were transported to participating hospitals between the years 2013 and 2017. The primary outcome measure was 1-month survival with favorable neurological outcome after OHCA. Temporal trends in in-hospital management and favorable neurological outcome among adult OHCA patients were assessed. Of the 11,924 patients in the database, we included a total of 10,228 adult patients from 16 hospitals. As for in-hospital advanced treatments, extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) use increased from 2.4% in 2013 to 4.3% in 2017 (P for trend <0.001). However, the proportion of adult OHCA patients with favorable neurological outcome did not change during the study period (from 5.7% in 2013 to 4.4% in 2017, adjusted odds ratio (OR) for 1-year increment: 0.98 (95% confidence interval: 0.94–1.23)).
Conclusions:In this target population, in-hospital management such as ECPR increased slightly between 2013 and 2017, but 1-month survival with favorable neurological outcome after adult OHCA did not improve significantly.
Background:Few registries have provided precise information concerning incidence rates for acute heart failure syndrome (AHFS) in Japan.
Methods and Results:All hospitals with acute care beds in Awaji Island participated in the Kobe University heart failure registry in Awaji Medical Center (KUNIUMI Registry), a retrospective, population-based AHFS registration study, enabling almost every patient with AHFS in Awaji Island to be registered. From 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2017, 743 patients with de novo AHFS had been registered. Mean age was 82.1±11.5 years. Using the general population of Japan as of 2015 as a standard, age- and sex-adjusted incidence rates for AHFS were 133.8 per 100,000 person-years for male and 120.0 for female. In 2015, there were an estimated 159,702 new-onset patients with AHFS, which was predicted to increase to 252,153 by 2040, and reach a plateau. The proportion of patients aged >85 years accounted for 42.6% in 2015, which was predicted to increase up to 62.5% in 2040. The proportion of patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction was estimated at 52.0% in 2015, which was predicted to increase gradually to 57.3% in 2055.
Conclusions:The present analysis suggested that the number of patients with de novo AHFS keeps increasing with progressive aging in Japan. Establishment of countermeasures against the expanding burden of HF is urgently required.
Background:Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). Heart rate (HR) also changes significantly over time. However, the association between changes in HR in AF patients and prognosis is uncertain.
Methods and Results:We investigated the association between HR reduction in AF achieved within 48 h of admission and 60-day mortality in patients with AHF from the REALITY-AHF study. The percentage HR (%HR) reduction was calculated as (baseline HR–HR at 48 h) / baseline HR × 100. The primary endpoint was 60-day all-cause mortality. In 468 patients with confirmed AF at both admission and 48 h after admission, the median HR at these time points was 105±31 and 84±18 beats/min, respectively. The median %HR reduction was 15.4% (interquartile range 2.2–31.4%). During the 60 days of admission, 39 deaths (8.3%) were recorded, and the %HR reduction within 48 h was significantly associated with 60-day mortality in the unadjusted model (hazard ratio [HR] 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.77–0.95; P=0.005) and after adjusting for other covariates (HR 0.81; 95% CI 0.68–0.96; P=0.016).Furthermore, the %HR reduction was associated with a significant reduction in 60-day mortality in patients with higher baseline HR.
Conclusions:%HR reduction is associated with a better short-term prognosis in patients with AHF presenting with AF, particularly in those with a rapid ventricular response.
Background:The degree of association between mortality and case volume/physician volume is well known for many surgical procedures and medical conditions. However, the link between physician volume and death rate in patients hospitalized for stroke remains unclear. This study analyzed the correlation between in-hospital stroke mortality and physician volume per hospital, considering board certification status.
Methods and Results:For this retrospective registry-based cohort study, data were obtained from the Japanese nationwide registry on patients hospitalized for ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) between 2010 and 2016. The number of stroke care physicians and relevant board-certified physicians was also obtained. Odd ratios (ORs) of 30-day in-hospital mortality were estimated after adjusting for institutional and patient differences using generalized mixed logistic regression. From 295,150 (ischemic stroke), 98,657 (ICH), and 36,174 (SAH) patients, 30-day in-hospital mortality rates were 4.4%, 16.0%, and 26.6%, respectively. There was a correlation between case volume and physician volume. A higher number of stroke care physicians was associated with a reduction in 30-day mortality after adjusting for stroke case volume and comorbidities for all stroke types (all P for trend<0.05).
Conclusions:An increased number of stroke care physicians was associated with reduced in-hospital mortality for all types of stroke. The volume threshold of board-certified physicians depends on the specialty and stroke type.
Background:Effects of rapid electrical defibrillation and β-blockade on coronary ischemia/reperfusion-induced ventricular fibrillation (VF) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) remain unknown.
Methods and Results:After induction of VF by 30 min of ischemia followed by reperfusion, animals were treated with defibrillation alone (Group A, n=13), 2 min of open-chest cardiac massage followed by defibrillation (Group B, n=11), or the same therapy to Group B with propranolol (1 mg/kg, i.v.) treatment before ischemia/reperfusion (Group C, n=11). If return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was not attained, each therapy was repeated ≤3 times (Set-1). When ROSC was not obtained within Set-1, cardiac massage was applied to all animals followed by defibrillation, which was repeated ≤3 times (Set-2). ROSC after Set-1 was 8% in Group A, 82% in Group B and 82% in Group C, whereas that after Set-2 was 62% in Group A, 100% in Group B and 82% in Group C. Each animal with ROSC in Groups A (n=8) and B (n=11) showed sinus rhythm, whereas those in Group C (n=9) had sinus rhythm (n=5), atrial fibrillation (n=1), accelerated idioventricular rhythm (n=2) and atrioventricular block (n=1). Post ROSC heart rate and mean arterial pressure were significantly lower in Group C.
Conclusions:Cardiac massage increased the likelihood of ROSC vs. rapid defibrillation, but β-blocker pretreatment may worsen hemodynamics and electrical stability after ROSC.
Background:Extensive ablation in addition to pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) would be effective for modification of non-pulmonary vein (non-PV) substrates, whereas PVI might be sufficient for elimination of PV triggers. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that in patients with reproducible atrial fibrillation (AF) triggered by premature atrial contractions originating only from PVs, PVI alone can be sufficient to maintain sinus rhythm.
Methods and Results:This study is a prespecified subanalysis of the EARNEST-PVI randomized controlled trial. This study investigated the efficacy of the PVI-alone strategy (PVI-alone) in comparison with the extensive strategy (PVI-plus) for persistent AF with a trigger-based mechanism vs. a substrate-based mechanism. Patients were stratified into 3 groups based on AF mechanisms: (1) Substrate group (N=236); (2) PV trigger group (N=236); and (3) non-PV trigger group (N=24). The hazard ratios for AF recurrence of the PVI-alone strategy with reference to the PVI-plus strategy were 1.456 (95% confidence interval [CI] [0.864–2.452]) in the substrate group, 1.648 (95% CI 0.969–2.801) in the PV trigger group, and 0.937 (95% CI 0.252–3.488) in the non-PV trigger group. No significant interaction between ablation strategy and AF mechanism was observed (P for interaction=0.748).
Conclusions:This study indicated that the efficacies of the PVI-alone strategy compared with the PVI-plus strategy were consistent across persistent AF with trigger-based and substrate-based mechanisms.
Destination therapy (DT) is the indication to implant a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) in a patient with stage D heart failure who is not a candidate for heart transplantation. The implantable LVAD has been utilized in Japan since 2011 under the indication of bridge to transplant (BTT). After almost 10 year lag, DT has finally been approved and reimbursed in May 2021 in Japan. To initiate the DT program in Japan, revision of the LVAD indication from BTT is necessary. Also, in-depth discussion of caregiver issues as well as end-of-life care is indispensable. For that purpose, we assembled a DT committee of multidisciplinary members in August 2020, and started monthly discussions via web-based communication during the COVID-19 pandemic. This is a summary of the consensus reached after 6 months’ discussion, and we have included as many relevant topics as possible. Clinical application of DT has just started, and we are willing to revise this consensus to meet the forthcoming issues raised during real-world clinical experience.