Glutathione (GSH) is a tri-peptide that plays an important role in protecting cells and tissues against oxidative stress. So far a lot of analytical methods of glutathione have been reported. This brief review presents an overview of the analysis of glutathione in biological samples by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in recent five years, focusing on the sample pretreatment, derivatization and mass spectrometric detection.
Much progress has been made during the last few decades in the treatment of malignancies. Many types of cancer cells comprising the tumor mass carry molecular markers that are not expressed or are expressed at much lower levels in normal cells. These findings provide new leads to drug design and development of therapeutic strategies involving monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) or related antibody drugs to treat malignancies. This article reviews recent advances in this targeting approach with a focus on the evolution and current use of prospective antibody drugs as effective ways to treat cancer. Additionally, the development of prospective antibody-drug conjugates will also be briefly described.
Genome sequence analysis of Streptomyces sp. LZ35 has revealed a large number of secondary metabolite pathways, including a complete gene cluster for the biosynthesis of cyclooctatin. This cluster contains four genes, cotB1–4, located in a 5-kb region. Optimization of fermentation medium for LZ35Δheng (SR107) led to the identification of cyclooctatin (1) and 16,17-dihydroxycyclooctatin (2), a new diterpene. The structures of these substances were elucidated on the basis of 1D-, 2D-NMR, and HRESIMS data. Cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231 and A549 cell lines was also evaluated. Results demonstrated that gene cluster and pathway analysis are key to guided isolation of new natural products.
Influenza virus infection is a major public health problem that leads to significant morbidity and mortality. The emergence of resistance to the currently available anti-influenza agents has necessitated the development of new drugs with novel targets. Studying known ethno-medicinal plants is a promising approach for the discovery of new antiviral compounds. Alchemilla mollis is used in traditional medicine in Europe for different indications, including minimizing the symptoms of a sore throat. In this study, we found that A. mollis extract has anti-influenza activity, and investigated the mechanism underlying its inhibition of influenza virus replication. Plaque assays demonstrated that treatment of cells with A. mollis extract prior to infection did not inhibit influenza virus infection. However, plaque formation was markedly reduced when infected cells were overlaid with an agarose gel containing A. mollis extract. In addition, exposure of the virus to A. mollis extract prior to infection and treatment of cells during virus infection significantly suppressed plaque formation. Influenza virus-induced hemagglutination of chicken red blood cells was inhibited by A. mollis extract treatment. The inhibitory effect was observed against influenza A virus subtypes H1N1, H3N2, and H5N2. These findings suggest that A. mollis extract has virucidal or neutralizing activity against influenza virus particles. Furthermore, inhibitory effect of zanamivir synergistically increased after combination with A. mollis extract. Our results suggest that A. mollis extract has the potential to be developed as an anti-influenza agent.
The aim of this study was to test for a potential anticarcinogenic effect of Celergen, a marine derivative devoid of traceable amounts of inorganic arsenic, on cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis in the HepG2 human liver cancer cell line. Celergen significantly inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner while limiting the cell cycle progression at the G1 phase and significantly inducing apoptosis. Further examination showed that Celergen enhanced expression of the p21CIPl1WAF1, GADD153 genes and downregulated the c-myc gene. These results suggest that Celergen exerts promising chemopreventive properties to be further investigated.
We conducted an in vivo study to evaluate the anticancer effect and toxicity of finepowder cisplatin suspended in lipiodol (fCDDP/LPD suspension) after a single administration of three different doses to rats via the intrahepatic artery after transplantation of rat ascites hepatoma cells. The toxicity of the fCDDP/LPD suspension was also assessed in the same protocol in noncancer-bearing rats and the observed toxicologic changes were compared among groups administered saline (Sal), an aqueous solution of fCDDP (fCDDP/Sal solution), and LPD alone. In parallel with the toxicity test, plasma CDDP concentrations were compared between the fCDDP/LPD suspension and fCDDP/Sal solution. The mean weight of the tumors in the fCDDP/LPD suspension groups was significantly less than in the LPD-alone group. The pathologic changes in the liver observed in the fCDDP/LPD suspension group increased with dose, were more marked compared with those in the fCDDP/Sal solution and LPD-alone groups, and were reversible. No other toxicologic effects were observed. The concentration of CDDP in the plasma in the fCDDP/LPD suspension group was slightly lower than that in the fCDDP/Sal solution group. In conclusion, the results indicate that the fCDDP/LPD suspension has sufficient anticancer efficacy and tolerability for use in the clinical treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.
A doctor was murdered at Wenling First People's Hospital in Zhejiang, China on October 25, 2013. During the incident, a patient assaulted three doctors, resulting in the death of one of the doctors. This incident has led to a heated discussion about the unhealthy doctor-patient relationship in China. There are complex reasons for the strained doctor-patient relationship in China, but one aspect that helped lead to this situation is the opacity of medical treatment. Research has shown that implementation of clinical pathways reduces the variability of clinical practice and improves outcomes. Standardized clinical pathways can provide a standard for evaluation of the rationality of treatment and also suggest a recommended treatment, potentially reducing the opacity of medical treatment in China. However, the standardized clinical pathways that are currently in use in China still need to be improved. The implementation of clinical pathways needs to be increased, those pathways need to be formulated in detail, a supervisory body needs to be established, and the public needs to be better informed. These aspects should be studied further.