Broadcasting has three phases; planning, production and transmitting. Educational broadcasting also has these three. Systems of educational broadcasting differ country by country. I categories them into four types. In some countries, educational administrations such as Ministry of Education, National Institute of Education, have responsibility on the planning of educational broadcasting. They make broadcasters produce and transmit educational programs. In other countries, govermental institutes of education own facilities for production of audio/visual materials. Educationists who belong to these institute set up a plan of educational broadcasting, write scripts and produce educational programs in their own studios. Taped programs are sent to a broadcasting station for transmitting. In the third system, the three phases are taken care of by three different organizations. An educational authority set up a basic plan for educational broadcasting, following the basic planprogramproduction companies produce video programs; then those programs are sent to a broadcasting station for transmitting. In these three systems, final responsibility of educational broadcasting is on the educationists, not on broadcasters. Japan's system is different from all these three. NHK, Japan Broadcasting Corporation, is a main body which broadcasts educational programs in Japan. NHK plans by itself a basic policy of educational broadcasting and NHK's producers produce hundreds of educational programs in its own studios, and those programs are broadcast through NHK's transmitter all over Japan. The only thing the Ministry of Education and other educational authorities can do for educational broadcasting is giving advice to the NHK: NHK has the final decision making and responsibility. This system has the advantage of producing many high quality broadcast programs. However, it would face some dificulties in producing so-called multi-media educational packages, because they are not broadcast programs. Today many Japanese experts of educational broadcasting are working in developing to help producing good educational programs. For this purpose, it is important to understand different systems of other. countries.
In 1988 Channel 11 started broadcasting as a TV network with an emphasis on public education in Thailand: 60 percent of its total program hours are devoted to educational programs. For its broadcasting, many programs have been sent from Japan: these include NHK's school broadcasts such as "Science Class (Rika Kyoshitsu)" Series and pre-school series called "With Mother (Okaasanto Issho)". In early 1989, plans were drawn up for a Thai-Japanese cooperative study to analyze the effectiveness of these NHK's educational programs for children in Thai primary schools. Three primary schools were selected representing the three different civic bodies governing the schools both in Bangkok and provincial area. A total of 1,039 pupils (grades 1-6) and 20 teachers were involved in the study. In order to meet a variety of objectives of the study, various sets of surveys were designed as follows and carried out in May and June, 1990. STUDY 1 A) GENERAL QUESTIONNAIRE--- to obtain general information of the children's TV-viewing habits, including viewing hours, program preferences, access to Japanese animated cartoons, access to NHK's ETV programs, and parents' recommendation and control of TV-viewing. [No. of resultant samples-1,039 ] STUDY 2 : Evaluation of three programs of NHK's "Science Class" : "Magnet and Magnet" for grade 3, "Water and Vapor" for grade 4, "The Secret of the Seed" for grade 5.  B)SCIENCE TEST---to evaluate the role and the effectiveness of the science programs in increasing the pupils' factual knowledge on the particular subjects. The same tests were carried out before and after viewing the programs.  C)PROGRAM TEST---to analyze pupils' impressions and opinions of the science programs.  D)TEACHER INTERVIEW---to investigate the teachers' comments on the science programs above and general attitudes in using TV programs as educational materials.  MAIN RESULTS STUDY 1: The overall data indicate that Thai children are rather heavy TV viewers, with 51% watching more than 3 hours on weekdays. Access to TV is higher among Bangkok children than country children. As for program preferences, children in Bangkok are absorbed in watching Japanese cartoons, while, country children still prefer Thai dramas.The most popular Japanese cartoon is "Doraemon" both in Bangkok and the provincial area. 82% of the children find the NHK's ETV programs "very interesting." Among various programs, "Science Class" is the most popular in all three schools and in every grade. Parents and teachers also think highly of these NHK's ETV programs. The viewing of these programs is encouraged by 75% of the children"s parents and 63% of their teachers. STUDY 2: The results of the three programs in terms of effectiveness as well as audience evaluation show that the NHK's "Science Class" Series are effective as educational material for Thai pupils. The programs have a practical and immediate ability to potentially increase the pupils' knowledge on the contents. The highlights of the programs are the experiments, which bring a lot of excitement and stimulus for the pupils. The effects of the programs in three sample schools, considered to represent three different levels of learning ability, fails to produce a consistent pattern than can prove the programs are highly effective or extremely ineffective with particular groups of pupils. NHK's science series thus achieve their objectives by demonstrating that they can be used for nation-wide broadcasting in Thailand. The degrees of difficulty in each series seem to be suitable for the Thai pupils, so the series can be used for school broadcasts as well. Children at a provincial area are considered representative of the majority of Thai pupils. On each of the programs, its
It was in 1965 that NHK-Japan Broadcasting Corporation inaugurated the Japan Prize International Educational Program Contest. The aims were to assist in the advancement of educational broadcast programs of all countries and to contribute to the promotion of understanding and cooperation among nations. Twenty-eight years have since passed, and the Contest marks its twentieth session in the fall of 1993. In the past nineteen sessions, the record of entries reveals the following facts: the aggregate number of participating countries was 993; participating organizations, 1,650, and program entries (radio and TV), 3,053. During the first decade, the Contest took place annually, and from 1975 on, it became a biennial event. In 1991, the Contest again became an annual event. That is why the 1993 Contest is not the twenty-ninth Japan Prize. It should also be mentioned that the entries became limited to television programs in 1991 to reflect a growing tendency which educational broadcasting of those days developed throughout the world: the swift, remarkable transition from radio to television made the sponsoring organization feel that the radio division had already accomplished the mission the Contest entrusted to the division when its first session took place in 1965. This treatise aims at tracing the history of the Contest that is going to celebrate its twentieth session, by looking back at various epoch-making and unforgettable entries. At the same time, it will try to delineate a general view of the stream of world educational television over the past three decades. In order to report the outcome of the upcoming 20th contest, and to manage the problem of the limited space in this bulletin, this writer ask the editors to allow him to publish the treatise in two parts. Therefore, the second part, which will include the results of the 1993 Contest, will appear. in Volume 20 (for the year 1994) of the bulletin. The treatise is composed of: An Introduction The First Period: The Japan Contest at Its Beginning (First Contest to the Third Contest) The Second Period: The Japan Prize Contest Greets the Age of Television (Fourth Contest to the Sixth Contest)The Third Period: The Expanding Scale of Educational Programs (Seventh Contest to the Tenth Contest) (The preceding will be in Volume 19.)(The following will be in Volume 20.) The Fourth Period: The Ever-Changing Society and the Japan Prize Contest (Eleventh Contest to the Fourteenth Contest) The Fifth Period: High Technology and the Future of Educational Television (Fifteenth Contest to the Twentieth Contest) A Postscript
1. The Background This study is based the theories involved in the social construction of reality and the quasi-statistical sense by mass media. Past studies found that people who are exposed to television construct a social reality based on the content of television. Another study found that the amount of television exposure and social reality occured for those who trusted television to be an accurate representation of actual life, and not for those who were skeptical of television. News reports which highlight a specific category of life conducts the social construction of reality through the mass media. News reports aregenerally considered to be an accurate representation of actual life, however, due to the process in reporting news, the objective reality of news is converted into a social reality, therefore, mass media can be inferred to contribute to the social construction of reality among individuals. A possible type of social reality constructed through mass media news can be found in the theory of Spiral of Silence. In this theory, quasi-statistical sense is a factor that is presumed to occur. This ability is suggested to be conducted through the mass media. 2. Purpose A primary objective of this study is to clarify the relationship of mass media news source exposure and credibility leading to a quasi-statistical sense. The independent variables, mass media news source exposure and news source credibility were configured to explain the assessment of distribution of opinion. The dependent variable, quasistatistical sense is configured under the topic of socieconomic conflicts between the U.S. and Japan. With this objective, the following hypothesis was formulated. Hypothesis:Heavy exposure and high source credibility to mass media news sources lead to a higher quasi-statistical sense concerning the mass media news content. 3. Method 570 university freshman and sophomores were randomly selected from three universities in the vicinity of Tokyo in order to homogenize age and other demographical factors. 260 reponses were collected and after screening incomplete results, the resultant number was 244. The questionnaire method was used to gather the date. The questionnaires were administered at three univirsities during the period of April 6 to April 15, 1992. The independent variable of television news source exposure is measured through news program selection and a conversion of each program into minutes. Newspaper exposure is measured through a time scale that is divided every ten minutes. The Gaziano-McGrath Factors were utilized for the items of news source credibility. This item is measured through a live point scale. The items for measuring the assessment of distribution of opinion are based according to the joint survey by NHK and ABC "50th Anniversary of The War between Japan and the United States" in The NHK Monthly Peport on Broadcast Research (1992) For analyzing the data, correlation and multiple regression between the independent and dependent variables was used. 4. Results and Discussion A primary objective of this study was to clarify the relationship of mass media news source exposure and credibility leading to a high quasi-statistical sense. The hypothesis: Heavy exposure and high source credibility to mass media news sources lead to a higher quasi-statistical sense concerning the mass media news content, was supported. Television news source exposure and credibility were highly significant factors leading to quasi-statistical sense. Even though the selected sample was deficient in subjects with heavy exposure to newspaper sources, one can still suggest that the hypothesis can be significantly supported, especialy concerning mass media news source credibility. From the results of this study, one can infer that mass media news source exposure and credibiity are both factors that can be considered as important elements for assessment of opinion