Food Science and Technology Research
Online ISSN : 1881-3984
Print ISSN : 1344-6606
ISSN-L : 1344-6606
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Displaying 1-26 of 26 articles from this issue
  • Sarangowa Ochir, Anuu Zorig, Qiherima Wang, Mikako Takasugi, Takashi ...
    Article type: Note
    Article ID: FSTR-D-23-00178
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: February 29, 2024
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    Rosa rugosa is a rosaceous plant used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat various diseases, such as rheumatism. Although the chemical constituents of R. rugosa petals have been reported, those of the pollen and their physiological functions remain unclear. In this study, two major compounds were isolated from R. rugosa pollen extracts for the first time, and their structures were identified using instrumental analyses as 8-methoxykaempferol 3-O-sophoroside and 8-methoxykaempferol 3-O-(2″-O-α-L-rhamnosyl)-β-D-glucoside. The anti-inflammatory activity of flavonol glycosides isolated from R. rugosa pollen was evaluated in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264 macrophages in vitro. They significantly inhibited nitric oxide release and induced nitric oxide synthase protein expression. They also significantly suppressed the release of inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6. These results suggest that the two flavonol glycosides in R. rugosa pollen have anti-inflammatory properties.

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  • Ruixue Xing, Tianchen Cai, Wenbao Jia, Qianting Ma, Xia Yin, Yangbo Xi ...
    Article type: Original Paper
    Article ID: FSTR-D-23-00215
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: March 01, 2024
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    Jianghua Kucha (JHKC) is a special tea germplasm that has a certain degree of bitterness. Alkaloids (theacrine, caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline) are one of the bitter substances in tea. However, simultaneous comparison of bitterness thresholds at different temperatures and taste active values (TAVs) of alkaloids in JHKC are unclear. Furthermore, as a special purine alkaloid of JHKC, the interaction between theacrine and bitter taste receptors is not clear. In this study, comprehensive analysis of bitterness thresholds and TAVs of alkaloids in JHKC as well as theacrine-bitter taste receptor interaction were carried out. These results showed that thresholds of caffeine, theobromine, theophylline, and theacrine at 15°C were significantly lower than those at 25°C and 45°C. Docking simulation results showed that theacrine had the best binding capability with TAS2R14. TAS2R14 amino acid residues Q2667.38, S652.60, and W893.32 may play a key role in docking simulation of theacrine, and hydrogen bonding and π-π interaction was the main interaction.

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  • Yuki Nakaya, Tetsuyuki Katayama, Yukako Okazaki
    Article type: Original Paper
    Article ID: FSTR-D-23-00183
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: February 28, 2024
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    To investigate the effects of edible mushrooms on colonic luminal variables, including fecal mucins, organic acids, microbial composition, immunoglobulin A (IgA), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and cecal organic acids, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a 30 % lard diet containing one of 12 species of edible mushrooms for 2 weeks. We found that the dietary intake of shiitake (Lentinula edodes), enokitake (Flammulina velutipes), white button (Agaricus bisporus) and yamabushitake (Hericium erinaceus) mushrooms elevated fecal ALP activity as well as increased fecal IgA, mucins, fecal Bacteroides ratio, and cecal total organic acids. In contrast, the intake of dietary eringi (Pleurotus eryngii), maitake (Grifola frondosa), tamogitake (Pleurotus cornucopiae), wood ear (Auricularia auricula-judae) and bunashimeji (Hypsizygus marmoreus) mushrooms had minimal effects on the colonic environment factors. We speculated that edible mushrooms could be grouped according to their effects on the colonic luminal environment.

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  • Ryunosuke Sugisawa, Takahiro Orikasa, Shoji Koide
    Article type: Note
    Article ID: FSTR-D-23-00210
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: February 27, 2024
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    In this study, fresh-cut cucumbers were subjected to near-freezing temperature storage at −2 ℃ (NF) for 12 d, and microbial population (aerobic bacteria and coliforms), physicochemical properties (weight loss, color, firmness, and pH), and O2 consumption were compared with samples stored at 5 ℃ (C). Observation indicated that no sample showed any critical freezing phenomena during near-freezing temperature storage. Results showed that the microbial population (aerobic bacteria and coliforms) was suppressed in NF samples but increased significantly in C samples compared with the stored samples on day 0. Results of physicochemical properties showed that weight loss and total color difference of NF samples were less than those of C samples. Moreover, near-freezing temperature storage at −2 ℃ inhibited O2 consumption compared with storage at 5 ℃. These results provide new insights into the application of near-freezing temperature storage for fruits and vegetables in the food cold chain.

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  • Hideto Kimura, Tomoe Ishihara, Miki Ishida, Yu Hirabayashi, Mitsuo Jis ...
    Article type: Technical Paper
    Article ID: FSTR-D-23-00208
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: February 15, 2024
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    Indigo plant (Persicaria tinctoria (Aiton) Spach) has been utilized as a dye material with antioxidant activity. To increase polyphenol yield, alkaline water was used for the extraction of indigo leaves. Total polyphenol content and hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity value of the alkaline water extract were higher than those of the pure water extract, whereas its β-carotene bleaching inhibitory activity and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity were lower. The predominant compound in the alkaline water extract was 3,5,4'-trihydroxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavone (TMF)-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. β-Carotene bleaching inhibitory activity of TMF was higher than those of TMF-O-glycosides. TMF-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside was hydrolyzed by β-glucosidase from rat small intestine most effectively among the TMF-O-glycosides. Our results showed that alkaline water extraction of indigo leaves is a useful method to increase the recovery of polyphenols, in which TMF-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside is the predominant compound, which can be easily hydrolyzed in the small intestine to TMF with high antioxidant activity against lipid peroxidation.
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  • Yoshiko Fukushima, Masayoshi Saito, Noriko Komatsuzaki
    Article type: Original Paper
    Article ID: FSTR-D-23-00198
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: February 14, 2024
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    We evaluated the quality of the fermented confectionery kouglof made with different oils and fats as ingredients. We tested ghee and grapeseed oil (GO) for their potential health benefits as substitutes for the butter in kouglof, and we observed that the height and specific loaf volume of the kouglof with GO were higher than the those of the butter or ghee kouglof. Compared to the butter or ghee kouglof, the GO kouglof’s hardness value was lower as shown by textural analysis, its bubble volume ratio was higher by 3D/2D image analysis, and its structure model index value was near-oval. The linoleic acid contents of GO and the kouglof with GO were not decreased by baking. These results demonstrate that the GO kouglof was softer and more elastic compared to the butter or ghee kouglof, and that GO can be used as a substitute for butter in terms of health and palatability.

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  • Shizuka Hase-Tamaru, Takumi Kamigaki, Ryusei Kanamaru, Tomomi Hara, T ...
    Article type: Original Paper
    Article ID: FSTR-D-23-00163
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: February 13, 2024
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    Selenoneine exhibited high antioxidant action compared to ergothioneine, a traditional antioxidant ingredient, whereas other selenium compounds such as selenious acid and seleno-L-methionine showed no antioxidative properties in several evaluations. We enzymatically prepared a hydrolysate of mackerel protein (EMP) containing selenoneine. EMP also exhibited antioxidant action in vitro. EMP treatment modulated the secretion of interleukin-6 and -10, but not TNF-α, in cultured RAW264.7 macrophages. The safety of EMP intake, i.e., selenium-feeding, was confirmed in SD rats. Serum and hepatic triglyceride levels and serum insulin, leptin, and cholesteryl ester levels tended to lower in SD rats fed EMP. The elevated serum triglyceride, free fatty acid, insulin, and leptin levels also tended to be decreased in KK-Ay mice fed EMP. These results suggest that EMP intake may be involved in the improvement of lipid metabolism, through immune modulation by the various antioxidants contained in EMP.

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  • Yuzo Mizkami, Kano Miyamoto, Takashi Shiono
    Article type: Original Paper
    Article ID: FSTR-D-23-00201
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: February 02, 2024
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    Most green tea beverages are sold in transparent polyethylene terephthalate bottles and are displayed under lighting on the shelves in convenience stores and supermarkets. The exposure of green tea beverages to light sometimes results in off-flavors. The key aroma components contributing to the off-flavors of these beverages are unknown. We identified key aroma components contributing to the off-flavors induced by light exposure using aroma extract dilution analysis with gas chromatography–olfactometry. In addition, odor-active values of these components were calculated based on the threshold and quantitative values. Seven aroma-active components namely, 1-octen-3-one, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one, (E,E)-2,4-heptadienal, (E,Z)-2,6-nonadienal, 3-methylnonane-2,4-dione, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, and trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, were identified as the key aroma components contributing to the off-flavors induced by light exposure of green tea beverages. These seven components were lipid-derived aroma components, and we believe they are produced from linoleic and linolenic acids in green tea beverages upon exposure to light.

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  • Koji Imamura
    Article type: Original Paper
    Article ID: FSTR-D-23-00129
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: January 26, 2024
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    It is known that using high-purity water such as distilled water or Milli-Q water for extracting coffee changes the taste. Further, since the purity of ice manufactured by an ice-making system is also high, we investigated whether the taste would change when coffee was extracted using water produced from melted ice. Sensory evaluation showed that coffee brewed with the melted-ice water had an improved clean taste. Content analysis of chlorogenic acid, caffeine, cations and anions showed that the coffee brewed with melted-ice water had a low sodium content. When sodium was added as an organic-acid salt to the coffee extraction water, taste sensor analysis revealed that the salty taste increased and the clean taste of coffee decreased. Therefore, this suggests that the clean taste of coffee depends on the sodium content of its extraction water.

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  • Takuro Nakagawa, Tetsuya Miyamoto, Kenshi Watanabe, Shouhei Miki, Hiro ...
    Article type: Original Paper
    Article ID: FSTR-D-23-00202
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: January 23, 2024
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    Egg-koji, fermented eggs by koji-mold (Aspergillus oryzae, A. sojae, and A. luchuensis), contains various enzymes that are expected to change the flavor and components of eggs. Digestion of whole egg liquid with egg-koji resulted in an increase in amino acid content, aroma component and free fatty acid formation, and a decrease in triacylglycerol level. Egg-koji AO101 (A. oryzae) increased the umami taste while maintaining its “egg flavor.” Egg-koji AS309 (A. sojae) showed reduced saltiness, which was considered to be because of the large amount of amino acids and aromatic ingredients masking the saltiness. Egg-koji AL434 (A. luchuensis) had a strong bitter taste, which was likely owing to the large amount of fatty acids. The characteristics of these strains are expected to lead to the development of various food products.

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  • Wei-Jing Li, Kevin Odongo, Ken-yu Hironao, Yoko Yamashita, Hitoshi Ash ...
    Article type: Original Paper
    Article ID: FSTR-D-23-00221
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: January 22, 2024
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    Black soybean contains various polyphenols such as flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins in seed coat and isoflavones in cotyledon. The content of polyphenols and their functions may vary depending on the variety and cultivation year. In this study, we measured the content of polyphenols in two black soybean varieties, Tanbakuro and Kurotsuru, over five cultivation years and investigated their antioxidant activity. Total polyphenol content in Tanbakuro was lower than that in Kurotsuru. Polyphenol contents in seed coat and cotyledon showed reverse trends during cultivation years. Variations in the polyphenol content and antioxidant activity in the seed coat and cotyledon showed the same trend. We focused on flavan-3-ols and expanded experiments using Caco-2 and HepG2 cells. (-)-Epicatechin and procyanidin B2 were easily permeated through Caco-2 cells than procyanidin C1 and cinnamtannin A2. Contents of (-)-epicatechin and procyanidin B2 in the permeated solution strongly correlated with their antioxidant activity in HepG2 cells.

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  • Hejun Duan, Yixing Feng, Yumin Niu
    Article type: Original Paper
    Article ID: FSTR-D-23-00097
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: January 19, 2024
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    To aid in the management of high-risk populations, bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) exposure from formula and human breastmilk was estimated in newborns and infants (aged 0-24 months) in Beijing. Derivatization with dansyl chloride coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was performed to analyze traces of BPA and 4-NP in human breastmilk. Danyl-BPA and danyl-4-NP were easily obtained as a highly selective method, which was applied to 118 human breastmilk samples. The results indicate that newborns and infants (aged 0-24 months) are safe in terms of dietary exposure when fed by breastmilk, but are at higher exposure risk when fed by formula milk at 0-12 months of age. BPA and NP exposure from human breastmilk is under tolerable daily intake of 4 µg.kg-1 bw.d-1 and 5 µg.kg-1 bw.d-1, respectively. These results supplement the estimated exposure database for BPA and 4-NP in Beijing, especially for newborns and infants.

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  • Daisuke Nei, Tatsuki Kamata, Yasumasa Ando
    Article type: Original Paper
    Article ID: FSTR-D-23-00194
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: January 15, 2024
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    Tons of eggshell waste contribute to the reduction in landfill capacity worldwide. This situation necessitates the development of diverse applications to expand their effective use. To develop new applications for eggshell, this study investigated the effects of eggshell powder on the flow properties of potato starch. Changes in the flow properties were evaluated by adding fine eggshell powder to potato starch at a concentration of 0.5–2.0 % (w/w). The angle of repose of potato starch without eggshell powder was 63 °. However, it decreased to 38 ° following the addition of eggshell powder at 2.0 % (w/w). In addition, eggshell powder positively affected the dynamic flow, bulk, and shear properties, indicating improvement in the flow properties of potato starch. Furthermore, eggshell powder changed the pasting properties of potato starch, with low and stable viscosities observed during heating. The findings demonstrate that the addition of eggshell powder improves the flow properties of potato starch. This could expand the applicability of this powder as an additive in food production.

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  • Ryoko Yamamoto, Eriko Takahashi, Maho Harada, Izumi Sawahata, Makoto N ...
    Article type: Note
    Article ID: FSTR-D-23-00176
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: January 12, 2024
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    Luteolin, widely present in plants, has various physiological functions. Here, we aimed to investigate whether luteolin affects lifespan and oxidative stress tolerance using Caenorhabditis elegans. Luteolin had no effect on the lifespan of wild-type N2 worms under normal conditions. In contrast, luteolin prolonged the lifespan of N2 worms under oxidative stress, suggesting that luteolin enhances oxidative stress tolerance. Luteolin upregulated the expression of gst-4, sod-1, sod-2, sod-3, and ctl-3 in N2 worms under oxidative stress conditions. The expression of these genes was regulated by DAF-16. Prolongation of lifespan and induction of gene expression by luteolin under oxidative stress conditions were not seen in daf-16 (mu86) mutants. These results suggest that the enhancement of oxidative stress tolerance by luteolin was mediated by the daf-16 pathway in C. elegans.

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  • Miku Miyoshi, Isao Kimura, Tadao Inazu, Hirotoshi Tamura, Ken Izumori, ...
    Article type: Note
    Article ID: FSTR-D-23-00175
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: January 11, 2024
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    Three tsukudani seasoning liquid models of soy sauce and amino acid seasoning liquid mixed with rare sugar syrup (RSS, main rare sugars: D-allulose, D-sorbose, D-tagatose, D-allose), glucose-fructose liquid sugar (GF), and white sugar (WS) were heated in a headspace sampler to create a delicious aroma. The aroma components generated were then analyzed using HS-GC/MS. As a result of the Maillard reaction, brown color intensity measured at absorbance 420 nm in the RSS liquid was significantly higher than in the GF and WS liquids. Principal component analysis of the quantitative data of the aroma compounds revealed 1.1–4.5 times more furans such as furfural, furfuryl alcohol, 2,5-diethyl tetrahydrofuran, and 3-phenylfuran were released from RSS than from GF and WS, which contributed to the characteristic aroma components of the tsukudani seasoning liquid. These results suggest that the four main rare sugars in the RSS are involved in the aroma formation.

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  • Mitsuyo Hori, Yusuke Kawai, Koichiro Noguchi, Kohei Nakamura, Masaya S ...
    Article type: Note
    Article ID: FSTR-D-23-00098
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: January 10, 2024
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    From traditional Gifu ayu-narezushi, Leuconostoc, Latilactobacillus, and Enterococcus were isolated as dominant genera. Isolated strains of Leuconostoc mesenteroides showed high growth inhibition activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The isolated strain, Enterococcus lactis EC52, could produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). These results indicated that Enterococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were lactic acid bacteria, which have GABA-producing and antimicrobial activities, respectively, in traditional Gifu ayu-narezushi.

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  • Chen-Yu Lin, Koshiro Futada, Phyo Htet Htet Kyaw, Shota Tanaka, Mohame ...
    Article type: Original Paper
    Article ID: FSTR-D-23-00186
    Published: 2024
    Advance online publication: January 09, 2024
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    In this study, the dnaK gene-deletion mutant strain of Escherichia coli BW25113 showed a higher susceptibility than the wild-type strain of E. coli BW25113 to phage S127BCL3. Flavonoids, myricetin and quercetin which had been reported to suppress the role of DnaK were tested to examine their effects on the phage susceptibility of E. coli BW25113. A 6-h pretreatment with 500 µmol/L myricetin or quercetin increased the phage susceptibility of E. coli BW25113. A similar result was observed in E. coli O157:H7. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was conducted to investigate the effects of flavonoids on the transcription of chaperone genes (dnaK, dnaJ, groEL, and grpE) in E. coli. Pretreatment of wild-type E. coli BW25113 with flavonoids decreased the transcription of chaperone genes. This is the first report demonstrating the enhancement of the phage susceptibility of both E. coli BW25113 and E. coli O157:H7 by flavonoids. The results of this study on the combined effects of flavonoids involved in foods and phages on E. coli provide scientific bases for development of a novel biocontrol method of foodborne bacteria.

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  • Kota Kera, Shohei Makino, Risako Takeda, Aoi Shimeno, Masaya Hojo, Sad ...
    Article type: Original Paper
    Article ID: FSTR-D-23-00189
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: December 27, 2023
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    The astringency of persimmon fruits is a significant factor for consumers and the nutritional industry. To date, astringents, such as polyphenols, specifically persimmon condensed tannins, have been assessed using polyphenol quantification assays, such as the Folin–Ciocalteu method, based on their reducing power. However, these methods are influenced by the presence of other reducing substances. In this study, we developed a cost-effective liposome turbidity analysis using a portable visible spectrophotometer based on the interaction between liposomes and astringents. Authentic astringents, such as catechins and theaflavin-3-O-gallate, were analyzed, and their half-maximal effective concentrations (EC50) were calculated. These results indicated that the affinity to the membrane was similar to that of astringency, as determined by sensory analysis. Additionally, the EC50 values of partially purified tannins from non-astringent and astringent persimmons were calculated. In conclusion, we determined the application methods to assess astringent persimmon fruits with and without the removal of astringency.

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  • Kiyota Sakai, Masamichi Okada, Shotaro Yamaguchi
    Article type: Note
    Article ID: FSTR-D-23-00182
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: December 26, 2023
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    Despite considerable research and developments in the color properties of plant-based meat analog (PBMA) products, their color changes during the grilling process are one of the main unsolved challenges. Recently, it was reported that a novel browning system for PBMA products containing a red pigment (betanidin) and a multicopper oxidase (laccase; LC) can simulate the color changes (red to brown) of animal meat. However, the reaction products in PBMA using this system have not been analyzed in detail. Thus, this study aimed to clarify the reaction products of betanidin oxidized via LC-catalyzed reaction. It was found that LC-catalyzed oxidation in the PBMA patties degraded betanidin to betalamic acid and cyclodopa, subsequently polymerizing these degradation products to produce unknown brown polymers. These findings provide suggestions for the browning mechanism of PBMA patties containing betanidin via LC-catalyzed oxidation.

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  • Yoshimasa Sugiura, Shouta Misumi, Yoichi Kinoshita, Hiroaki Yamatani, ...
    Article type: Note
    Article ID: FSTR-D-23-00153
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: December 25, 2023
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    We investigated the antiallergic effects of 80 % methanol (80M) extracts obtained from Ecklonia cava subsp. stolonifera, harvested along the coast of Nishinoshima Town, Oki Islands, Shimane Prefecture, Japan, at different stages of algal powder manufacturing (involving heating operations). The radical-scavenging activity of the extracts increased during the manufacturing process. The extracts could mitigate allergic inflammation in mice and degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 cells. The contents of typical algal polyphenols, such as phlorotannins (eckol, 6,6′-bieckol, 8,8′-bieckol, dieckol, and phlorofucofuroeckol-A), in the 80M extracts were analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, which revealed that eckol and dieckol were more abundant than the other three phlorotannins throughout the manufacturing process, while an increasing trend in the contents of all five phlorotannins was observed in later stages of the manufacturing process. Furthermore, measurement of the total polyphenol content revealed the probability of polyphenol polymerization during manufacture.

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  • Shyuichiro Inagaki, Hiroka Fujimoto
    Article type: Note
    Article ID: FSTR-D-23-00165
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: December 21, 2023
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    The isoflavone aglycone (IA) content in commercial fermented soybean products in Korea, such as cheonggukjang and doenjang, and the IA-producing ability of the Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from the products were examined. Among three commercial products, product C (doenjang), which is produced using a long fermentation method, showed the highest conversion rate of isoflavone glucosides to aglycones. Of all eight B. subtilis strains isolated from the products, four strains had the same or higher level of IA production than B. subtilis (natto), with the C-3 strain showing the highest level. Hence, the difference in the conversion rate among the products might be attributed not only to fermentation time during the manufacturing process, but also the IA-producing ability of the B. subtilis strains. Moreover, the C-3 strain produced IAs during the early stage of culture with soybean liquid medium, and the IA-producing ability of the C-3 strain in the fermentation with soybean solid medium was higher than that of B. subtilis (natto). Thus, the rapid IA production by the B. subtilis C-3 strain might contribute to the high IA content of product C.

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  • Kazuhiro Fujita, Megumi Suzuki, Kazushi Mizukoshi, Yushi Takahashi, To ...
    Article type: Technical Paper
    Article ID: FSTR-D-23-00135
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: December 20, 2023
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    β-Conglycinin (β-CG), a major soy protein, has been associated with the reduction of body fat and triglycerides in the blood. Quantitation of the α, α¢, and β subunits in β-CG is desirable to establish the functional properties of β-CG in soybean. Therefore, in this study, we used the Jess System, a capillary electrophoresis-based immunoassay system, for quantifying β-CG in soybean foods. The validity of this method was confirmed using soybeans and processed soy milk. The within-laboratory reproducibility of the total β-CG amount was < 15 %, and its trueness was > 80 %. The β-CG content in the commercially available soybeans, Kori-tofu, soy milk, soy yogurt, Okara powder, and soy meat was determined to be 40.3–148.5, 65.2–97.2, 6.1–7.8, 3.5, 18.0, and 57.5 mg/g, respectively. For the first time in the literature, this method enables the quantitation of individual subunits of β-CG, despite the large variation in the amount of each subunit.

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  • Hitoshi Shibayama, Naoki Kobayashi
    Article type: Note
    Article ID: FSTR-D-23-00144
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: December 19, 2023
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    The behavior of a raw carrot bolus through a vertical pipe was investigated with a laser detector. To investigate the effect of cohesiveness, samples were pre-processed in various stages, as follows: no compression, 50 % and 80 % compression, and blending with xanthan gum. First, the transit time of the bolus was measured from the time series signal of the voltage drop corresponding to the density of the food fragments. The results showed that the transit time was shorter for the bolus with greater assumed cohesiveness. Next, we analyzed the structure of the bolus flow by obtaining the power spectrum of the time series signal, which exhibited a power-law relationship of the form 𝑃 (𝑓) ∼ 𝑓 −𝛼. The value of the exponent α, reflecting the structure of the bolus flow, was also shown to be correlated with the assumed cohesiveness. Therefore, we propose that α can be used as an index to evaluate bolus cohesiveness under shear conditions.

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  • Noriko Kohyama, Takashi Yanagisawa
    Article type: Note
    Article ID: FSTR-D-23-00120
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: December 11, 2023
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    Headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was utilized to analyze the volatile compounds in cooked barley. A total of 56 compounds were identified, including 18 aldehydes, 13 ketones, 6 alcohols, 6 furans, 5 acids, 2 furfurals, and 6 others. The grains of waxy and nonwaxy barley were pearled and stored at either 5 ℃ or 40 ℃ for 5 months prior to cooking. The waxy genotypes exhibited higher levels of key odorants in cooked barley, such as hexanal, 2-octenal, 2,4-nonadienal (E, E), and 2,4-decadienal (E, E), compared to the nonwaxy genotypes. Elevated storage temperatures (40 ℃) led to an increase in 42 volatile compounds, particularly 2-butyl-2-octenal in cooked barley. Principal component analysis revealed distinguishable profiles of volatile compounds among the nonwaxy 40 ℃ storage group, the waxy hull-less 40 ℃ storage group, the waxy hulled 40 ℃ storage group, and the 5 ℃ storage group.

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  • Zhu Wenrui, Miura Makoto
    Article type: Original Paper
    Article ID: FSTR-D-23-00167
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: November 29, 2023
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    Milk proteins play an essential role in yogurt manufacture, by adsorbing onto the fat globule interface. This study aims to clarify the impacts of milk fat globules on the physicochemical properties of stirred yogurt, by modifying the particle size distribution of fat globules in reconstituted milk. The results show that high-pressure homogenization increased the association between milk proteins and milk fat globules. The zeta potential and protein surface hydrophobicity of reconstituted milk samples increased. Stirred yogurt prepared with reconstituted milk homogenized at high pressure (≥ 20 MPa) exhibited a fine mesoscopic structure with higher water holding capacity and apparent viscosity. Based on transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, the milk fat globules tended to form effective connections with casein micelles, giving the yogurt a finer network structure and higher viscosity. These findings reveal that controlling milk fat globule size can effectively improve stirred yogurt quality.

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  • Yonathan Asikin, Tomomasa Kudaka, Ryota Maekawa, Takuya Kobayashi, Mak ...
    Article type: Original Paper
    Article ID: FSTR-D-23-00142
    Published: 2023
    Advance online publication: November 28, 2023
    JOURNAL RESTRICTED ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Pineapple is an important representative fruit of Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. The fruits of the five new breeding lines (“Okinawa No. 22,” “Okinawa No. 25,” “Okinawa No. 26,” “Okinawa No. 27,” and “Okinawa No. 28”) were evaluated for physicochemical traits, total carotenoids, volatile components, and orthonasal aroma profiles. The fruits had comparable weight, total soluble solids, and titratable acidity but displayed different color space b* values (yellow index). This yellow indicator was positively associated with total carotenoid content, with the “Okinawa No. 26” line having the most (8.74 mg/kg). The amount and composition of volatile components and, consequently, aroma-active compounds varied between fruits. The “Okinawa No. 28” line contained the most active-aroma compound methyl 2-methylbutanoate (odor activity value = 297.78). Except for “Okinawa No. 25,” the lines were associated with pleasant orthonasal aromas, such as fruity, sweet, coconut-like, and peach-like, indicating their potential use in fresh or processed foods.

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