In Japan, the empirical method for preventing root vegetable collapse is to place them in room temperature water and then heating them. This study aims to determine the effects of water temperature increase rate on the softening and optimum boiling duration of the Japanese radish and potato. We found that the lower the rate of increase in water temperature, the lower the softening rate constants (k) of both the radish and potato. With decreasing rates of water temperature increase, the optimum boiling duration of radish increased. However, because the potato softened easily before boiling, the difference in optimum boiling duration among all rates of water temperature increase was very small. The k and degree of methylation (DM) of pectin showed a linear relationship, which suggested that the decrease in DM is the main reason for the reduction in k at low rates of water temperature increase.c>
We re-evaluated the feasibility of fermentation seeds made from Inaniwa udon, a traditional wheat noodle. Inaniwa udon dough was cultivated in a 5 % saline medium at 29 ˚C for three days (hereinafter ‘Hyphopichia-enriched starter’). Without adding sugar or yeast, this Hyphopichia-enriched starter could be used to make a primitive type of bread whose ingredients were limited to flour, salt and a starter. A typical strain of this culture, Hyphopichia burtonii M2, had much higher α-amylase activity than the type culture of H. burtonii, NBRC 10837T. When used for bread making, both strong and weak flour yielded bread with a specific volume of 2.0–2.2 cm3/g. The fresh bread crumb tended to be dark in color, with an L* of 63–70.
The molecular interaction of black tea components with phospholipid vesicles has been investigated to elucidate the various functions of black tea infusions, such as astringency, inhibition of cholesterol absorption, and inactivation of viruses. We have developed a simple method to analyze the turbidity of phospholipid vesicle solutions reacted with black tea infusions or components as an indicator of the molecular interaction. Using a portable visible spectrophotometer, the dose-dependency of catechins, theaflavins, thearubigins, and black tea infusions on turbidity was analyzed. The results indicate that authentic catechins and theaflavins independently caused aggregation of the phospholipid vesicles; however, their concentrations in the tea infusions were insufficient. Meanwhile, thearubigins prepared from black tea leaves caused aggregation at the concentration found in the tea infusions. It is concluded that thearubigins, instead of theaflavins, mainly contribute to the interaction with phospholipid vesicles.
In a batch reactor, 0.01 mol/L arginine, lysine, or histidine, which are natural basic amino acids, was used as an environmentally friendly, “green”, catalyst to isomerize 0.2 mol/L ribose to the corresponding ketose, ribulose, at 110 °C. The changes over time in the conversion of ribose, the yield of ribulose, pH, and the absorbance of the reaction mixture at 280 and 420 nm were measured. The yield of ribulose was highest (ca. 8.5 %) when arginine was used as a catalyst, followed by lysine. Ribulose was also produced with histidine, but the yield was very low (ca. 1.5 %). On the other hand, the coloration, which was evaluated by the absorbance of the reaction mixture at 280 and 420 nm, was highest when lysine was used, followed by arginine. Therefore, arginine was the most suitable green catalyst for isomerizing ribose to ribulose among the three basic amino acids tested.
This study aimed to employ three reducing sugar (fructose, galactose and glucose)-lysine mode reaction systems (FLMRS, GaLMRS and GLMRS) in examining the influences of reaction conditions, such as initial pH value, reaction temperature, and time on the Nε-(1-Carboxymethyl)-L-lysine (CML) formation. Results indicated that the initial pH value were positively correlated with the CML content in the system. However, the influence of reaction temperature and time on the CML content in the system displayed an initial increasing trend followed by a decline. A temperature of 100.58/125.24/123.24 ℃ and a heating time of 30.00/24.66/25.38 min maximized the formation of CML on FLMRS/GaLMRS/GLMRS and resulted in a CML production of 2.11/1.39/1.34 mmol/mol lysine of response surface methodology. The results of this study would provide particular theoretical support for studying the formation mechanism and control methods of CML in food processing.
Glycation reactions between proteins and sugars or their metabolites produce advanced glycation end-products, and the glycation of collagen in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) causes skin spots and freckles. UV exposure induces oxidative stress in NHDF, which overexpresses enzymes that degrade collagen, resulting in dry skin and wrinkling. Herein, we produced a novel polyphenolic decoction of Chaga mushroom extracted with a fermentation medium. Chaga polyphenol decoction (CPD) inhibited the glycation of albumin and collagen gel 3 to 4 times more than 2-aminoguanidine. The antioxidant effects of CPD were investigated using the fluorescence of an intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, and NHDF exposed to UV-A for 60 min (9.5 J/cm2) after pre-treatment with 190 µg/mL of CPD suppressed ROS scavenger emission by 50 % compared to treatment with phosphate buffer saline. These results suggest that CPD might be a promising glycation inhibitor and ROS scavenger.
Tempe, a traditional Indonesian fermented soy-based food, reportedly has higher antioxidant activity than unfermented soybeans. In 2015, the Codex Alimentarius defined the starters of soybean tempe to be Rhizopus microsporus var. oligosporus, Rhizopus oryzae, and/or Rhizopus stolonifer. Most previous studies have focused only on tempe prepared with R. oligosporus. In this study, we compared the antioxidant activities of tempe fermented with three Rhizopus species and unfermented soybeans using assays for β-carotene bleaching (antioxidant activity), antioxidative potential, and oxidative stabilization. The β-carotene bleaching and antioxidative potential assays indicated that the tempe fermented with R. stolonifer had higher antioxidant activity than the tempe fermented with R. oligosporus and R. oryzae. We speculate that the high antioxidant properties of this product are attributable to the isoflavone aglycones and hydroxylated compounds produced by fermentation.
The first taste sensor was developed 30 years ago, and its use has become widespread in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Numerous efforts have been made to improve taste sensor technology since that time. Now, over 600 taste sensors are used around the world to quantify and visualize the taste of food. In this article, we first explain the mechanisms underlying the operation of taste sensors and how they respond to the five basic sensations of taste. A taste map of beers that presents their taste in a visual manner will be introduced as a typical application of the taste sensors used in the food industry. We then discuss the ability of the taste sensor to detect taste interactions, such as bitterness-suppressing effects as well as attempts to produce tasty low-calorie foods. Recent attempts to visualize personal preferences and the dynamic changes in the taste of food during chewing using the taste sensor are also explained. The environment surrounding taste sensors and the taste sensors themselves have progressed considerably, with new food services appearing constantly. We are entering an era where we can increase our enjoyment of eating.
Connective tissue and fat are often removed from meat during processing. Their removal requires skilled butchery techniques; however, few methods are available for batch processing a large number of meat pieces. In this study, we aimed to develop a pretreatment method that promotes the flow of connective tissue and fat from meat so that they are removed during cooking. When meat samples pre-treated with protease (immersion in papain solution) and quick freezing (with thawing after immersion in liquid nitrogen) were cooked, connective tissue and fat disintegrated; the amount of outflow was significantly higher than when each treatment was applied individually. This combination reduced treatment time and did not severely damage the muscle tissue in the meat. This method has the potential to produce value-added meat products in terms of sensory quality and nutrition.
Chimonanthus salicifolius S. Y. Hu (C. salicifolius) is a unique medicinal plant of Magnolia in China, it could inhibit pathogens and prevent flu, which has been extensively applied for drinking tea. The purpose of this study was to analyze the main components of ethyl acetate extract of C. salicifolius (EAECS) and explore the effect of extract on loperamide-induced constipation in mice. The mice with constipation induced by loperamide were given different concentrations of C. salicifolius extract once a day for 14 days. The constipation-related parameters, stool particles, the time of the first black stool defecation and gastrointestinal (GI) transit rate were determined. In addition, the change of abundance and diversity in intestinal microbiota were analyzed. The results indicated that the main components in EAECS were rutin, nicotiflorin, quercetin and kaempferol. After administration, EAECS treatment relieved loperamide-induced constipation in mice, as evidenced by reduced defecation time and significantly increased GI transit rate, fecal particles and water content. At genus level, the extract also remarkably reduced Ruminococcus and increased the abundance of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in intestinal tract of mice (all p ＜ 0.05). These findings indicated that EAECS effectively improved loperamide-induced constipation in mice and could be considered as a candidate treatment for constipation.
Nutritional supplementation with L-arginine has been shown to promote cell growth and exercise performance, and is helpful to various disorders. Astragalus membranaceus and Panax notoginseng are traditional herbal medicines that display a wide range of beneficial activities. To understand their effects on L-arginine absorption in human intestinal cells, in vitro and in vivo experiments were performed using a standardized mixture of Astragalus membranaceus and Panax notoginseng saponins (APS). Our studies indicated that APS increased the expression of cationic amino acid transporter 1 (CAT1) and L-arginine transport in human Caco-2 cells. In addition, APS benefits TNBS-induced-colitis rats by increasing food intake, body weight, intestinal epithelial integrity, CAT1 gene expression, and blood L-arginine level. APS also reduces intestinal inflammation associated with increased myeloperoxidase activity in colitis rats. Further studies indicated that the plasma L-arginine level significantly increases in human subjects administered APS.