The tertiary functions, health benefits, and promoting functions of food have been well researched, and this knowledge has facilitated the development of supplements. Marketable supplements must include components that give users the bodily sensation that they are effective when taken. These components include highly bioavailable chemicals that are incorporated in their original form without undergoing modification and resistant to the catabolic decompositions in the body. These components can be prepared from rich sources other than food. Chemicals in food are limited by their intake amounts, and their incorporation also interfere with food ingredients such as dietary fiber. Supplements can supply large amounts of chemicals in a single dose, but also have the potential to produce chronic side effects. Research on tertiary food functions can provide consumers with valuable information, but how this knowledge can be applied to the development of supplements remains unclear.
This study investigated protein recovery from squid mantle (Dosidicus gigas) using the following two methods: a conventional method (CM; water washing) and direct isoelectric precipitation (IP). The IP treatment offered a better yield. Protein fractionation showed a myofibrillar protein content of 64.83 ± 0.02 and 55.47 ± 0.05% for CM and IP, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry showed differences in the myosin denaturation temperature with values of 37.27 ± 0.74 and 40.93 ± 0.41°C for the CM and IP treatments, respectively. Moreover, Surface hydrophobicity showed major hydrophobicity with the CM treatment. The total sulfhydryl content was higher in IP than in CM, but a decrease in sol-gel transition was more evident in CM than in IP. The hardness of the gel obtained from IP was higher than that of CM with values of 1695.66 ± 177.82g-f and 668.33 ± 21.19g-f, respectively. Direct isoelectric precipitation of protein from squid mantle generated a better yield and better functional protein compared to the conventional method.
Flammulina velutipes, also called enokitake, is usually used for soup cuisine in Taiwan. For health concern to reduce the use of monosodium glutamate (MSG), mushrooms are a particular alternative of interest. Accordingly, we prepared the extract using thermal processing. Commercial protease was added before extraction. Contents of total free amino acids in Bromelain and commercial enzyme extracts (100.74 and 97.34 mg/g dry matter) were higher than that in the hot water extract (WE, 84.94 mg/g dry matter) but contents of umami amino acids were not increased. However, WE showed the highest equivalent umami concentration (241.29 g MSG/100 g dry matter). Sensory study showed that 0.3% WE or 0.3% powder was equivalent to 0.3% MSG but less sweet than 2% sucrose. In vegetable soups, 0.1% WE showed sensory results of 4.83-5.50 at a nine-point hedonic scale. Nevertheless, 0.05% WE and 0.05% MSG was comparable to 0.1% MSG. Overall, WE could be developed for umami seasoning.
Subcritical water treatment at temperatures of 140–220°C was applied to polyphenols obtained from Japanese persimmon. Properties of the treated polyphenol solution, such as soluble and insoluble solid contents, freezing-point depression, and DPPH radical scavenging activity, were measured. All tested properties were well expressed by the severity factor reflecting the quantity of energy loaded onto the persimmon polyphenols. At a greater severity factor, precipitation occurred and the soluble solid content decreased. However, polyphenol depolymerization occurred simultaneously owing to the formation of acidic compounds, resulting in greater freezing-point depression. The antioxidative activity of the treated solution was also evaluated by measuring the DPPH radical scavenging activity, and was found to increase with an increase in the severity factor.
We examined changes in the appearance of green tea decaffeinated by montmorillonite (MMT) and the effects of interlayer ion in MMT on the appearance of decaffeinated green tea. After MMT treatment, turbidity was generated in decaffeinated green tea over time and was suggested to be due to precipitation of calcium oxalate generated by a reaction between Ca ion released from the interlayer of MMT and oxalate ion in green tea. Exchanging the interlayer ion in MMT with Na, K, Mg or NH4 ion suppressed the precipitation of calcium oxalate in decaffeinated green tea, such that turbidity after decaffeination was not observed. The ion-exchanged MMTs (K, Mg or NH4-MMT) had similar caffeine adsorption abilities on the decaffeination of green tea. Our findings suggest that ion-exchanged MMT can remove caffeine in green tea and maintain the appearance quality.
Sea cucumbers are traditional marine food in Asian countries. In this work, the chemical elements accumulated in sea cucumber Acaudina leucoprocta from the East China Sea were measured and analyzed. The contents of Zn, Mn, Cu, As, Pb, Cd and Cr increased with the increase of weight of A. leucoprocta. The levels of Pb and As in all the examined individuals were higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) permitted in foodstuffs. The metals were found to be selectively distributed in the body compartments of A. leucoprocta. The highest contents of heavy metals As, Pb were found in intestines and body wall, while the lowest in anus and internal organ. An efficient chemoenzymic method by combining proteolytic enzymatic hydrolysis with citric acid soaking was established to remove the heavy metals in sea cucumber A. leucoprocta. The concentrations of both As and Pb were decreased to below 0.5 mg kg−1 in all the samples.
A simple, rapid and efficient method named ultrasound-assisted QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) and ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (IL-DLLME) prior to high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (HPLC-PAD) was developed for the determination of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) from packaged fowl meat products. The optimum conditions for IL-DLLME experiments were tracked by response surface methodology (RSM). Under the optimum conditions, the precision of proposed method less than RSD 4.0% and linear working range of 5 to 500 µg L−1 with R2 above 0.9985 were achieved. The LOD was verified as 0.25 and 0.52 µg L−1 for BBP and DBP, respectively. The mean recoveries ranged from 86% to 98% with RSD less than 10.1%. The proposed method was successfully detected the presence of BBP, DBP in canned and plastic food. No significant increase of migration of the two analytes from packages to food contacted during 9 months of shelf life was detected.
The present study was conducted to evaluate the quality characteristics of functional restructured spent hen meat slices developed by utilizing different binders and extenders. Potato, texturized soy protein, whey protein concentrate, oat meal and barley flour were utilized in different combinations to get three different blends viz. A, B and C. These were used to replace the lean meat in pre-standardized formulation of restructured spent hen meat slices (RSHMS). Hardness, gumminess and chewiness of RSHMS with blend C was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than blend A and B. RSHMS with blend C had significantly (P < 0.01) higher dietary fiber, iron, copper, zinc contents and lower cholesterol content as compared to the control. On the basis of above findings, the product with blend C was adjudged as the most acceptable and was adopted as functional restructured spent hen meat slices.
Sodium bicarbonate microcapsules (SBCM) were prepared by phase separation method using glycerol monostearate (GMS) and konjac glucomannan (KGM) as wall materials. Microscope micrographs clearly showed that SBCM microcapsules were spherical shapes, and the microcapsule morphology could not be changed at 40°C, while it could be destroyed at temperature above 60°C. DSC thermograms implied that SBCM wall materials could be melted at temperature about 59°C. Size distribution indicated that the particle size of SBCM was mainly distributed in the range of 50 µm to 300 µm. SBCM stability was evaluated using the percentage of SBC (sodium bicarbonate) retention, i.e. retention ratio. SBC retention ratio showed that SBCM was highly stable in the temperature range 40–80°C. Furthermore, carbon dioxide (CO2) release efficiency of SBCM was investigated by pairing the microcapsules with monopotassium phosphate. The CO2 release ratio of SBCM was very low at temperature below 60°C. However, the release ratio was sharply increased at temperature above 60°C, and CO2 was almost completely released at 60°C for 10 min. According to the results, the CO2 release of SBC could be effectively controlled by encapsulating into microcapsules based on GMS/KGM wall materials.
Food texture is an important characteristic related to food preferences. Food texture instruments are used to determine the physical profiles of foods; however, they are not sufficient for detailed evaluation of food texture. In this study, a novel method for the quantitative evaluation of food texture is proposed. The proposed method records time-series data of force and vibration in fractures for different foods that have been estimated to have a similar food texture. Then, the dynamic time warping barycenter averaging algorithm is used to determine the standard data based on the recorded time-series data. Finally, the dynamic time warping algorithm is used to calculate the similarity between the measured data and the standard data, which is regarded as the quantitative food texture. The effectiveness of the method was confirmed with experimental results.
Hovenia dulcis Thunb. extract (HDE) was co-fermented by Bacillus subtilis HA and Lactobacillus plantarum EJ2014. The co-fermentation was optimized by adding glucose (3% for the first fermentation, 1.5% for the second fermentation), MSG (5%), and skim milk (5%). The HDE broth fermented by B. subtilis HA showed pH 7.3, 0.09% acidity, 0.52 mg/g tyrosine equivalents, and viable bacterial counts of 1.4×109 CFU/mL. The viscous broth obtained indicated a consistency index of 3.90 Pa.sn and 32.70 mg/mL mucilage after 2 days. Subsequently, after the second fermentation, the broth indicated pH 4.5, 1.08% acidity, 0.87 mg/g tyrosine equivalents and viable bacterial counts of 2.0×106and 3.0×109 CFU/mL for B. subtilis HA and L. plantarum EJ2014, respectively. The MSG substrate was effectively converted into GABA, which showed a final concentration of 16.08 mg/mL in the broth. Therefore, the co-fermented HDE was effectively fortified with mucilage, GABA, peptides, and probiotics, and could be used as a functional ingredient for nutraceuticals.
We aimed to develop a highly water-dispersible dry powder of hydrophobic polyphenols derived from chrysanthemum flower. A dry powder resulting from the mixture of an ethanolic extract of chrysanthemum flower (CF) with transglycosylated rutin (rutin-G) and sucrose fatty acid esters (SEs) was successfully formulated. This powder dispersed easily in water, and the mean particle size in water remained at ∼150 nm without apparent changes even after one-week storage. Furthermore, the particle size of the dispersed powder prepared by heat-and-acid treatment shifted below 100 nm after one-week storage. The xanthine oxidase-inhibitory activity of the resulting CF–rutin-G–SEs powder was almost equivalent to that of chrysanthemum flower oil according to in vitro analysis. This technique for preparing a highly water-dispersible dry powder from natural products containing hydrophobic polyphenols should be applicable to the development of functional food products.
To maximize the potential of the Maillard reaction for the development of novel time-temperature integrators/indicators (TTIs), we investigated various color change patterns using different combinations of reactant concentrations and temperatures for the Maillard reaction with xylose, glycine and disodium hydrogen phosphate. We analyzed digital photo images for quantitative evaluation of the color changes in the RGB color space. The results revealed that the sigmoidal RGB value decreased under all conditions, and the reaction was accelerated by increases in temperature and reactant concentration. Thus, the reaction completion time, which was 18–61, 7–21, 4–14, 2–10, 1–4, and 0.5–2 days at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25°C, respectively, could be tuned by controlling the above variables. In addition, we developed a mathematical model that predicted the color change over time with high accuracy (R2 > 0.99) for a wide range of temperatures.
Hydrostatic pressure treatment of food has attracted attention because it can inactivate microorganisms without heating. To understand the changes in microbial proliferation, we selected Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The generation time of each microorganism was determined based on the number of viable cells before and after application of pressure of 20 to 50 MPa for 6 to 24 hours at 10 to 45°C. The pressure values at which the proliferation of microorganisms stopped were obtained under the respective temperatures. Hydrostatic pressure (50 MPa or less) was applied to unpasteurized sake and fruit and vegetable juices with the goal of reducing the number of viable cells and bacteria, thereby extending the use-by date. A relatively low pressure was found to lengthen the time food could be stored at low cost using pressure-storage. Our findings are considered applicable to food industry practices.
To accelerate cheese ripening, two non-starter lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus paracasei strain EG9 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides strain FM1, were isolated from ripened cheeses. The growth of EG9 at 10°C was not affected by 1.7% (w/v) sodium chloride, whereas the growth of Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei JCM8130T was suppressed. FM1 produced a higher amount of free amino acids (FAA) than Leu. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides ATCC8293T in a skim milk culture. Experimental cheeses were produced to examine the effect of isolate additions on cheese ripening. The total FAA content of the cheese was significantly increased with EG9 addition during ripening. The parameters of a taste sensor were not affected by EG9 addition, but the pH and water content were significantly lower, and the texture showed greater hardening. It was suggested that EG9 is useful to accelerate FAA production in cheese without influencing taste sensor analysis.
The quality characteristics of extruded noodles prepared from five kinds of brown rice with different amylose contents (15.96%–21.88%) were investigated. Cooking quality, texture, in-vitro digestibility and sensory attributes were determined to evaluate the properties of the brown rice noodles. The results showed that the brown rice noodles with higher amylose content exhibited higher water absorption rate, lower cooking loss, no broken noodles after cooking, and higher texture properties. Moreover, the brown rice noodles with higher amylose contents had lower in-vitro digestibility, higher contents of resistant starch and slowly digestive starch, and higher sensory scores. However, the brown rice noodle with the highest amylose content showed the lowest sensory scores, suggesting that there might be optimal amylose content for preparing brown rice noodles with good qualities, which might be 19.07%–20.45% in this study. The results might provide the basis for production of brown rice noodle products with good qualities for nutritional food markets.
To clarify the effects of traditional Okinawan vegetable methanol extracts on histamine release from KU812 cells, we prepared methanol extracts from lyophilized powders of Crepidiastrum lanceolatum Nakai (hosoba-wadan), Peucedanum japonicum Thunb. (botan-bofu) and Artemisia indica Willd. var. orientalis (Pamp.) H. Hara (nishi-yomogi), and examined histamine concentrations released from cells by each extract. We also investigated the polyphenol profiles of each extract by HPLC and the impact on histamine release of the principle component. As a result, the histamine release from cells by hosoba-wadan and nishi-yomogi extracts were significantly suppressed (P < 0.05) when compared with control and botan-bofu extracts. Moreover, we found that the hosoba-wadan and nishi-yomogi extracts characteristically contained chlorogenic acid and luteolin-glycoside, respectively, and the histamine concentration released from the cells by the chlorogenic acid and luteolin were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than other polyphenols. Traditional Okinawan vegetable extracts suppressed histamine release from allergic cells, suggesting a new therapeutic approach for allergic diseases.
Histamine poisoning is a common seafood-borne illness worldwide, and Morganella morganii subsp. morganii is one of the most probable histamine producers. Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses that kill the host cell after infection. In this study, we evaluated the effect of M. morganii phage FSP1 treatment on histamine accumulation by M. morganii in raw tuna meat. M. morganii was inoculated to tuna meat and incubated at 4, 12 and 20°C to evaluate the inhibitory effects of FSP1 on the growth and histamine accumulation of M. morganii. Viable M. morganii counts were decreased significantly in response to FSP1 treatment under all conditions. Furthermore, histamine concentrations in phage-treated samples were significantly lower than those of control samples. FSP1-resistant M. morganii did not develop after FSP1 treatment. These results suggest that phage treatment might be an effective tool to reduce the risks of histamine poisoning by M. morganii in fisheries products.
The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of ultrafine powder of Dendrobium officinale (UDO) against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury in mice. ICR mice were orally administered with UDO (100, 200, 400 mg/kg/day) for 14 days before intraperitoneal injection of APAP. The results showed that UDO exhibited a significant dose-dependently preventive effect on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. Pretreatment with UDO significantly reduced the serum levels of alanine transaminase and aspartate aminotransferase. Histological examination indicated that administration with UDO alleviated inflammation and necrosis as well as ameliorated hepatocyte steatosis, especially at 200 and 400 mg/kg doses. Additionally, UDO markedly recovered the activities of glutathione, catalase and total antioxidant capacity, and decreased the content of malonaldehyde and reactive oxygen species. In summary, the results suggested that pretreatment with UDO exists potently hepatoprotective effects against APAP-induced liver damage, which may be related to the enhanced antioxidant capacity and inhibited lipid peroxidation.
The characteristics of amylopectin fine structure in rice starches are still elusive and the effect of amylopectin fine structure on starch physicochemical properties remains to be determined. In this paper, the fine structure of amylopectin especially the ratio of A-chains to B-chains was investigated using the improved enzymatic method. The influences of amylopectin fine structure on pasting properties of 91 rice accessions were also analyzed. The statistics results showed that the fine structure of rice starches highly varied with cultivars and these accessions were representative in terms of rice quality. Further correlation studies suggested that the ratio of A-chains to B-chains was negatively correlated with setback viscosity and pasting temperature, while average chain length and average external chain length was positively correlated with them, which indicated that the length of external chain and proportion of long and short chain of amylopectin played an important role in determining the rice cooking quality and functionality.
Three types of spray-dried egg white powders, of which dispersion in water showed pH of 7.4 (EW7.4), 8.4 (EW8.4) and 10 (EW10), respectively, were adjusted to pH 4.0, 7.4 and 9.0. The obtained egg white dispersions were separately whipped to afford foams similar to meringue. Foaminess (specific volume) was highest at pH 4.0 for EW8.4 and EW10, but lowest for EW7.4. From stress-strain curves, three parameters (maximum stress, breakdown and apparent elasticity) were calculated and compared among pH levels adjusted just before whipping. All parameters were lowest at pH 4.0 and showed inhibited foam formation in contrast with foaminess. Thus, EW7.4-whipped foam showed a different pH-dependency from EW8.4 and EW10. On sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of insoluble fractions derived from whipped foams, lysozyme was washed out by KCl solution for EW7.4, differing from EW8.4 and EW10, in which lysozyme remained in the insoluble fraction after washing with KCl or water. From the above results, pH adjustment for egg white before spray drying is considered to modify the interaction between egg proteins and to change the physical properties of whipped foam.
The starch from waxy/amylose extender (wx/ae) double-mutant rice is almost indigestible by porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA) and behaves like resistant starch, even though PPA digests waxy mutant (wx) and wild-type (WT) rice starches easily. To clarify the relationship between binding ability and susceptibility to PPA hydrolysis, we studied the PPA adsorption capacity of wx/ae starch. Results showed that the wx/ae starch adsorbed 80% more PPA than wx and WT starches, consistent with the ratio of their specific surface areas. This suggests that PPA adsorption capacity is determined by the specific surface area of starch granules. Thus, the resistance to digestion of the wx/ae starch is not due to adsorption capacity, but to the higher-order nanostructure of the starch granules. The morphological features of digested wx/ae starch granules observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggest that the higher-order nanostructure of wx/ae starch is similar to that of resistant starches, such as high-amylose rice and potato starches.