Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element for human health. Organic zinc (O-Zn) is more security and has higher bioavailability than inorganic Zn. Brown rice with embryo and can germinate under the appropriate condition. During germination, brown rice could absorb exogenous inorganic Zn and transformed it into O-Zn by combining with macromolecules. In this study, germination conditions for zinc accumulation in germinated brown rice were investigated and the zinc distribution in various parts and macromolecule fractions were analyzed. Germination time, temperature and Zn2+ concentration significantly affected O-Zn content and ratio of O-Zn to total zinc (T-Zn) (O-Zn/T-Zn). The optimized condition was germinating for 3 d at 30.28°C after 200 mg/L of Zn2+ soaking. Under the optimum conditions, the maximum O-Zn content (304.71 µg/g) and O-Zn/T-Zn (86.21%) were obtained. Moreover, 21.19% of O-Zn was found in the protein fraction, 30.42% in the polysaccharide fraction and 1.24% in the nucleic acid fraction. T-Zn, O-Zn content and O-Zn/T-Zn declined substantially from the outer layers to the inner endosperm of Zn-enriched brown rice. O-Zn mainly combined with polysaccharide compared with protein and nucleic acid.
The efficacy of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on the quality of Japanese apricot was investigated at 25°C. X-ray computed tomography (CT) was employed to measure pixel-based average CT values in terms of gray scale (GS) value. The ethylene production rate and weight loss were minimal, whereas firmness, apparent density and soluble solids content were higher in 1-MCP-treated fruits. The histogram profile was almost the same during the storage period in 1-MCP-treated fruit. Differences in the internal structure between 1-MCP and control fruits could be identified by CT images. The standard deviation (GS) and low-density pixel volume were negatively correlated, whereas average CT value (GS) and peak height were positively correlated with the bio-yield stress and apparent density. X-ray CT images could thus be used for quality evaluation. Further, 1-MCP significantly delayed the ripening of Japanese apricot, thereby maintaining the internal structure at harvesting for seven d.
Extraction of collagen from the eggshell membrane was optimized by the methodology of response surface. The Central Composite Design (CCD) was applied. This was done to find the optimum combination of acetic acid concentration (0.1–0.9 mol/L), temperature (5–25°C), stirring speed (100–500 rpm) and extraction time (12–36 h) to maximize the acid soluble collagen (ASC) extraction. The highest amount of extraction was theoretically predicted to be 8.55%, under the optimal. The recovery experimental ASC, was calculated to be 8.35%, which confirms the predicted value, thereby confirming the reliability of the method. Analysis of amino acids revealed glycine (308 residues/1 000 residues) as the major amino acid and showed imino acids of 229 residues/1 000 residues. ASC had minimum solubility at pH 7. No changes in solubility were observed in the presence of NaCl concentrations that did not exceed 4% (w/v). The denaturation temperature was 46.8°C which correlated suitably with imino acid contents.
Tempe is produced by thermally treating soybeans with boiling and subsequent fermentation using Rhizopus oligosporus. In this study, thermal processing by boiling was replaced with steam pressure, and the physicochemical features and biological activities of tempe were examined. Retention of nutrients and the fungal growth rate were higher in soybeans treated by steam pressure than in those treated by boiling. Antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus was found in extracts of soybeans after fermentation, and the activity was higher in tempe processed by steam pressure. Antioxidative activities in extracts of soybeans before and after fermentation were higher using steam pressure than boiling. These results suggested that in tempe processed by steam pressure, the promotion of antibacterial activity was due to the increase in fungal growth, whereas the enhanced antioxidative activities were mainly due to increases in the antioxidative activities in soybeans before fermentation.
We investigated the inactivation effect of intermittent treatments using carbonation under heating (CH) and second heating (HT), in the presence of germinants or monoglycerol caprate (MC10) on Bacillus subtilis spores. Intermittent treatments by CH, followed by incubation and a second HT, in the presence of germinants showed up to 2.6 log-order inactivation effects on spores. Compared with the effects of glycine, sodium benzoate, and potassium sorbate, MC10 increased the inactivation effect of CH. MC10 decreased the D value and activation energy for inactivation of the spores. Intermittent treatments with MC10, conducted by a CH, followed by HT, inactivated spores by 3.6 log-orders. CH with MC10 induced the release of dipicolinic acid (DPA) and increased the stainability of the spores by DAPI. This suggests that germination-like phenomena, during CH, were included in the inactivation effects. Spores, which survived the intermittent treatment combined with MC10, did not proliferate in a liquid medium.
Greeneye (Chlorophthalmus albatrossis) in soaking liquids such as tap water, salty water (SW), vinegar water, salty vinegar water, and salty vinegar broth (SVB) was processed by medium high hydrostatic pressure at medium high temperature (MHHP+MHT; 100 MPa, 65°C, 30 min) or high hydrostatic pressure at low temperature (HHP+LT; 600 MPa, 10°C, 5 min). Both treatments sufficiently inactivated endogenous fish microflora, however MHHP+MHT treatment partly degraded the fish. The suitability of HHP+LT treatment to extend shelf life under refrigeration was further studied since this process preserved the fish shape. The fish with or without head and viscera was immersed in SW or SVB and treated by HHP+LT. Greeneye without head and viscera in SVB was processed by HHP+LT and stored for 3 months, and its suitability for deep-frying was evaluated as high in terms of microbial safety, shape, and palatability.
This study sought to determine the optimal cooking conditions under which lutein would be maintained while oxalic acid and nitrate ion would be removed. The effects of cooking temperature and time control on the concentration of oxalic acid, nitrate ion, and lutein in spinach were investigated. The results demonstrated that boiling at 100°C for 2 min was the optimal cooking condition. This preserved approximately 77% of lutein while 67% of oxalic acid and 30% of nitrate ion were removed. If nitrate ion is disregarded, we also found that submerging in hot water at 60°C for 30 s was another optimal condition. In this case, 96% of lutein remained, 28% of oxalic acid was removed, whereas the content of nitrate ion was unchanged.
Five polished rice varieties with different amylose contents were cooked, sealed, and stored at 4°C for 168 h. The slope of first-order plots of hardness and stickiness changed during storage; the change process was divided into two periods: the first and latter halves of the period, each with different rate constants. The rate constant of hardness increase in the first half period was greater for rice with a higher amylose content; conversely, in the latter half period, it was greater for rice with a lower amylose content. The rate constant for stickiness decrease in the latter half was greater than that in the first half, and the higher the amylose content, the larger the rate constant in both periods. By simulating a change in the stickiness-hardness ratio using kinetic parameters with texture changes, the time taken for the quality of cooked rice to deteriorate during storage was predicted.
We developed a beverage that forms a gel containing gas bubbles in the stomach and induces satiety. In a preliminary experiment, we confirmed that when a carbonated beverage containing any one of three types of ionic polysaccharides was mixed with artificial gastric juice, it resulted in the formation of a gel containing gas bubbles. Among the three types of polysaccharides referenced above, low methoxyl pectin (LM pectin) was identified as being the optimal for preparation of the test beverage in this study. Both static evaluation using a vessel and dynamic evaluation using the Gastric Digestion Simulator (GDS) revealed that the volume of the bubble-containing gel remained relatively stable with time. Presence of the bubble-containing gel in the stomach following consumption of the carbonated beverage containing LM pectin was confirmed in a clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) study. Consumption of this test beverage resulted in a greater increase of the intragastric volume than consumption of the same amount of water. Moreover, in the satiety questionnaire, the subjects reported a higher degree of satiety following consumption of the beverage than following consumption of an equal amount of water. These results indicate that when this test beverage, a carbonated beverage containing LM pectin that forms a bubble-containing gel in the stomach, is consumed, the stomach becomes distended, inducing a feeling of satiety.
Wheat starch biosynthesis is influenced by the Wx gene, which may also affect the quality and characteristics of flour and food. In this study, eight near-isogenic Wx wheat lines were bred and used as test materials for analysis of the content and biosynthesis dynamics of starch, and the changes in flour and dry noodle qualities were evaluated. The results showed that the contents and accumulation rates of amylose, amylopectin, and total starch initially increased and then decreased at 20 d after anthesis. Additionally, the three Wx genes examined in this study had varying effects on the amylose content and accumulation rate, in the order of Wx-B1 > Wx-A1 > Wx-D1. Wx genes had only minor effects on amylopectin biosynthesis. Lack of Wx gene expression was expected to affect the physiochemical properties of wheat flour, with the Wx-B1 gene exhibiting the most dramatic effects. Almost all properties except taste, stickiness, and total score of dry noodles decreased following silencing of the Wx-B1 and Wx-D1 genes. Dry noodle qualities deteriorated to different degrees after silencing of one, two, or three Wx genes, and almost no amylose biosynthesis and very poor dry noodle quality were observed in wheat lacking all three Wx genes.
We investigated the effect of carbonation treatment with heating (CH) in the presence of glycerin fatty acid esters on Bacillus subtilis spores. The inactivation effect of CH was the highest in the presence of monoglycerol monocaprate (MC10). Monoglycerol monolaurate showed the highest bacteriostatic effect. The resistance of spores to CH with MC10 did not change with pre-heat activation. Freshly prepared spores from the surviving spores following CH with MC10 showed resistance similar to that of normal spores. The resistance of spores might be affected by the composition of the spore-forming medium. CH with MC10 enhanced adhesion of MC10 to spores and dipicolinic acid (DPA) release from spores, but did not induce DNA fragmentation. Inactivation of B. subtilis spores by CH with MC10 may be attributable to the impairment of physiological germination and/or decrease in heat resistance, which were induced by enhanced MC10 adhesion and the resultant DPA release.
Building a brand fish is the key to success in business, as brand fish are generally sold at a higher price. We focused on one of the varieties of brand red sea bream, which is famous for its texture and aesthetic appeal. In this study, we evaluated the appearance and texture of red sea bream meat using organoleptic analysis to elucidate the relationship between degradation of muscle protein and meat quality. The appearance and texture were significantly superior in the brand red sea bream as compared to the non-brand variety. The brand red sea bream muscle showed greater resistance to apoptosis and autophagy. This suggested that the difference in the appearance and texture of the brand red sea bream was because of the suppression of muscle protein degradation. The results indicated that the brand fish was obviously tastier than the non-brand fish.
Influence of pH values on physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activities of whey protein isolate (WPI)-safflower yellow (SY) complexes were investigated at 25°C under the aerobic condition for 0, 3 and 6 d. Compared with WPI, WPI-SY had a less particle size at pH 3.5, 6.5, 7.5 and 8.5 from 0 to 6 days. Fluorescence intensity of WPI-SY complexes was appreciably less than WPI, which indicated that the partial tyrosine or tryptophan residues of whey protein had undergone certain changes. Compared with WPI and SY, thermal stability and emulsifying activity of WPI-SY complexes remarkably increased at different pH values. Meanwhile, antioxidant activities of WPI-SY complexes were higher than that of WPI or SY at pH ranged 4.5 to 9.5, kept for 3 and 6 d. Therefore, the interaction of WPI and SY at different pH values, could improve emulsifying activity of WPI and enhance antioxidant activity of SY.
Eight natto-producing factories were surveyed for the contamination of phages that infect Bacillus subtilis (natto). A total of 160 sampling points, including manufacturing pipelines, instruments, floors, drainage ports, containers, and building facilities were inspected by wiping the surfaces. Virulent phages were detected from 28 survey points in four of the factories. Phages were frequently found in factories that had experienced product spoilage by phage contamination within the past 3 years. Isolated phages were not clonal and variations in their genomes were observed, although some phages were very similar. We developed phage-resistant B. subtilis (natto) strains using isolated phages as indicators. They were resistant against all phages found in the survey and those isolated decades ago from spoiled natto. The yueB gene that codes the receptor for phage SPP1 was not essential for the phages tested in this study to infect B. subtilis (natto) strains.
The regional standard for tempeh recently established by the Codex Alimentarius defines the use of Rhizopus oligosporus, Rhizopus oryzae, and/or Rhizopus stolonifer as soybean tempeh starters. However, there has been little comparative study on the tempeh prepared with these Rhizopus species. This study compared the contents and compositions of isoflavones in tempeh prepared with these Rhizopus species. The contents of total isoflavone aglycones (daidzein and genistein) and the ratio of total aglycones to total isoflavones in the tempeh fermented with R. stolonifer were higher than those with other Rhizopus species. In the isoflavone-enriched tempeh-like fermented soybeans made using hypocotyls and dehulled soybeans, the total aglycone contents and the ratio of total aglycones to total isoflavones were also higher for R. stolonifer than for the other species. These findings highlight the importance of R. stolonifer as the most appropriate Rhizopus species for the production of isoflavone aglycone-enriched tempeh.
The aim of this study was to develop an analytical method for the discrimination of reducing and non-reducing monosaccharides including rare sugars on a prototype hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) column. The HILIC column was composed of a glycidyl methacrylate-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate copolymer attached to 8 wt% polyethyleneimine. Seven monosaccharides (reducing aldoses: D-xylose, D-allose, and D-glucose; non-reducing ketoses: D-fructose, D-psicose, D-sorbose, and D-tagatose) were targeted. In individual HPLC analysis of both aldoses and ketoses, elution with 90 v/v% acetonitrile permitted successful detection and separation only for the non-reducing ketoses. Besides, elution of a mixture of ketoses and aldoses with 85 v/v% acetonitrile containing 5 mmol/L sodium 1-octanesulfonate (OS) (pH 4.8) enabled the simultaneous separation of all seven monosaccharides within 40 min. The polyethyleneimine-attached HILIC column allowed discriminant HPLC analysis for non-reducing ketoses using elution with 90 v/v% acetonitrile, whereas elution with 85 v/v% acetonitrile containing 5 mmol/L OS simultaneously detected both ketoses and aldoses.
Changes in dough metabolite profiles during fermentation can provide insight into the relationship with bread quality. We examined the changes in dough ingredients according to the amount of yeast and with or without punching. Metabolomic analysis of dough during fermentation utilized proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) techniques. There were small differences in the water-soluble compounds of the dough between with and without punching, but differences in the volatile compounds were found. Doubling the amount of baker's yeast halved the fermentation time, but the contents of some metabolites were different. Correlation analysis indicated that some metabolites showed moderately strong correlations with the specific volume of baked bread. Overall, this study provides insights into the extensive metabolomic diversity associated with yeast activity.
This work investigated the effects of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) gum addition, as a fat replacer in ice cream. Water-extracted okra gum was used to replace the fat in ice cream at 0, 22, 44, 55, 88 and 100% to produce Super Premium (18% fat), Premium (14% fat), Regular (10% fat), Economy (8% fat), Low-fat (2% fat) and Zero-fat (0% fat) ice cream. The addition of okra gum was found to be comparable with full fat ice cream in term of melting rate and texture analysis. Droplet size data for the Super Premium ice cream displayed a bimodal distribution, whilst Zero-fat ice cream exhibited a monomodal droplet distribution. Rheological test, demonstrated that, Economy ice cream was the most elastic (G′). The substitution of fat content in ice cream with okra gum increased the viscous modulus (G″). Sensory results indicated that, up to 55% replacement of fat with okra gum was feasible to achieve satisfactory ice cream properties.
The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects and therapeutic mechanism of deer antler base polypeptide on mammary hyperplasia in female mice. A trail was conducted on seventy mice which were divided into seven groups including the groups of control, mock, Chinese traditional medicine, and Western medicine, as well as high-dose, medium-dose, and low-dose of polypeptide from deer antler. A combination of oestrogen-progestin induced the mammary hyperplasia. We used an intraperitoneal injection in a 30 d trial and used intragastric administration to treat the disease for a further four weeks. The body weight, organ coefficient, serum hormone level and oxidation level, as well as the pathological section of breast tissue were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed using factor analysis of variance. Compared with the mock group, the high-dose group could increase the serum T-SOD, and GSH-PX activities and thymus coefficient (P < 0.01), decrease the serum MDA concentration and the coefficient of ovary and uterus (P < 0.01). In addition, the high-dose group had reduced levels of E2, PRL, and improved P, and LH as confirmed by ELISA to regulate hormone secretion to normal (P < 0.01). The pathological section of breast tissue produced by HE staining showed that the high-dose group reduced the number of inflammatory cells, glandular secretion, the hyperplasia and dilatation of the duct epithelium, and recovered the atrophic alveolar. The results revealed that deer antler base polypeptide has positive effects in the treatment of HMG and the prevention of breast cancer.
This study investigated the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity and antihypertensive effect of alcalase-, flavourzyme-, and protease N-digested porcine brain hydrolysates (PBHs) on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) after their oral administration. In addition, we investigated whether a peptide fraction with a molecular weight of less than 3 000 Da inhibits ACE in vitro and lowers arterial blood pressure. The results revealed that PBHs obtained after 4 h of hydrolysis with protease N (PBP4H) yielded peptides enriched with ACE-inhibitory activity (86.29 ± 5.76%). Furthermore, PBP4H had the lowest ACE-inhibitory activity IC50 value (1.945 mg/mL). Oral administration of PBP4H-100 (100 mg/kg bw/day) and low-molecular-weight peptide fractions, PBP4H < 3 000 Da (50 mg/kg bw/d) reduced the systolic blood pressure (−30 mmHg) in SHRs. Moreover, the long-term administration of PBP4H-100 and PBP4H < 3 000 Da significantly suppressed hypertension. In addition, results of the plasma ACE activity was positively related with the SBP lowering effects of PBP4Hs. Overall, these results reveal the antihypertensive effect of PBH and as a functional supplement for suppressing hypertension.
Random-centroid optimization (RCO) was applied to determine the optimum preparative conditions for glycated chicken myofibrillar proteins (Mfs) conjugated to maltose or ribose. The optimization targets were antioxidative ability against superoxide anion radicals () and a minimum 60% solubility in low ionic strength medium. Four optimization parameters, temperature, relative humidity (RH), reaction time, and quantity of maltose or ribose, were selected and 13 experimental conditions were obtained (using the RCO program). The examinations were independently assessed according to individual vertex values. The obtained optimal conditions for maltose and ribose were determined to be 61 and 38°C, 38 and 39% RH, 33.9 and 3.80 h reaction time, and a sugar to protein mixing ratio (w/w) of 5.59 and 10.4 (w/w), respectively, and scavenging activities of each conjugate reached the maximum of 274 ± 86 (n=3) and 368 ± 120 (n=3) units of superoxide dismutase/g of protein.
Starch isolated from cv. Toyoshiro potatoes cultivated with/without calcium fertilizer application in two locations, Kamikawa and Tokachi, was evaluated for total starch, resistant starch, amylose, phosphorous and calcium contents, average granule size, pasting properties and thermal properties. Total starch and resistant starch contents were similar between the control and the calcium treatment in both locations. Average granule size, amylose and calcium contents were significantly higher in the calcium treatment in both locations (p < 0.05). Peak and breakdown viscosities did not significantly differ between the control and the calcium treatment in the two locations. Calcium treatment significantly reduced initiation (T0), peak (TP) and conclusion (TC) temperatures of gelatinization in Kamikawa, and significantly increased T0 and TP in Tokachi, while the enthalpy of gelatinization (ΔH) was similar (p < 0.05).
Wasabi is a member of the Brassicaceae family and produces various isothiocyanates (ITCs). Because 6-methylsulfinylhexyl ITC (6-MSITC) is stable among wasabi ITCs, it has potential as a functional compound. Hair loss can have psychological and social effects on an individual because of its impact on appearance. In this study, we investigated the stimulatory effects of 6-MSITC by culturing on human follicle dermal papilla cells (DPCs). Results showed that 6-MSITC significantly promoted DPC proliferation and upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA levels compared to control. Furthermore, 6-MSITC significantly upregulated adenosine A2b receptor (ADORA2b) mRNA levels. Previous studies have reported that VEGF was induced through ADORA1 and ADORA2 pathways. We suggest that 6-MSITC stimulates hair growth on DPCs related to the upregulation of ADORA2b mRNA level. Thus, 6-MSITC may be used as a functional compound.