Buckwheat is a kind of medicinal and edible crops. Suitable treatment methods can be used to promote germination, shorten germination time, improve the activity of metabolic hydrolase and synthase, and induce the synthesis and enrichment of flavonoids such as rutin. In this paper, the effects of environmental factors (water, temperature, light), ultrasonic, electric field, magnetic field, microwave, laser, and metal ions on the seed germination of buckwheat, the activity of enzymes related to the growth of sprouts, and the nutrient composition of sprouts were reviewed, and mechanisms of action of these treatments on seed germination and sprout growth of buckwheat was discussed. The purpose of this study was to provide technical reference for the development and utilization of buckwheat seeds.
The amount and fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat are considered to contribute to beef tenderness and aroma; however, the effect on taste-traits remains poorly understood. This study aimed to develop a suitable beef broth sampling method using an electronic taste sensing system to clarify the influence of intramuscular free fatty acids (FFAs) on the taste of Japanese Black Wagyu beef. Japanese Black Wagyu and Holstein beef broths were prepared by four methods during postmortem aging and analyzed using the electronic taste sensing system. For comparison, the cooked samples were also subjected to sensory evaluation. The results of this study revealed that boiling is the most appropriate method for beef taste-trait estimation, as the taste-traits of boiled broth analyzed by the electronic taste sensing system coincided well with those analyzed by sensory evaluation, especially for the taste-traits of umami and sweetness. The increase in amounts of FFAs in beef broth during postmortem aging likely influences the taste-traits of Japanese Black Wagyu beef.
We applied a vacuum microwave drying (VMD) process to shiitake mushrooms under different pressure conditions below 20 kPa, and investigated drying time, hardness and rehydration characteristics, extracted guanylic acid, color, and sensory evaluation. The samples were subjected to different microwave treatments at different levels of power (25 W/g dry matter, 50 W/g dry matter, and 75 W/g dry matter) and absolute pressures (3 kPa, 10 kPa, and 20 kPa). VMD reduced drying time by approximately 13 to 70 times compared with hot air drying (HAD). Decreasing the pressure tended to soften the rehydrated samples, whereas the amount of guanylic acid extracted from samples treated at 20 kPa was the largest. The sensory evaluation score of VMD-treated shiitake mushrooms was larger than HAD-treated mushrooms. Collectively, these results suggest that VMD is more suitable and useful than HAD in producing high quality dried shiitake mushrooms.
Milk beer is a distinctive alcoholic milk drink created in China, and increasingly popular with consumers. Yeast is key factor to its fermentation production, and determines the flavor and quality. In this investigation, a high-quality yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus MJ1 suitable for milk beer fermentation was utilized in an optimization study of proliferation culture. Results showed that using the optimal medium composition: wort-based medium supplemented with molasses 2.94%, wheat bran 1.56%, CaCO3 0.21%; and applying the optimal culture conditions: 28 °C, rotation speed 220 rpm, inoculation concentration 1.5×106 CFU·mL−1, the viable count of MJ1 reached a maximum of 7.8×108 CFU·mL−1. Compared to YPD broth, the viable count of MJ1 increased to 4.11 times, while the raw material cost decreased to about 1/6 of the cost of YPD broth. The study achieved high-density proliferation culture of MJ1 through usage of low cost crop by-products; and laid the foundation for preparation of active freeze-dried powder for applications in the milk beer industry.
Generalized-regression-neural-network (GRNN) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) models were utilized to develop mathematical models for assessing the effects of harvest maturity and storage time on the storage quality of Korla fragrant pear. The results showed that fruit firmness had high correlations with harvest maturity and storage time. At different harvest maturities, the firmness of fragrant pear decreased with increasing storage time; while under the same storage time, a lower harvest maturity resulted in a faster decrease in the fruit firmness of fragrant pear. The GRNN and ANFIS models were validated to be reliable in predicting the variation tendency of fruit firmness of fragrant pear. In addition, the ANFIS model with generalized bell (gbellmf) (RMSE = 0.161; R2 = 0.98) was proved to be the optimum model. The findings of this study can provide reference for the research and practice of the storage of fragrant pear.
The cooking and eating qualities of Phka Rumduol, a leading rice variety in Cambodia, were examined in comparison to Phka Malis and Koshihikari. Per the results, Phka Rumduol showed greater elongation after cooking than Phka Malis. Further, Phka Rumduol tended to absorb a greater amount of water. Alkali degradation of Phka Rumduol was stronger than Koshihikari but weaker than Phka Malis. Physical properties determined by multiple bite measurements with a Tensipresser showed that Phka Rumduol and Phka Malis differed significantly from Koshihikari in values (H3, H5, A3, A5 and −A5). Sensory evaluation by a Cambodian panel showed that Phka Rumduol and Phka Malis were significantly different from Koshihikari in grain dimension and favorability. A questionnaire conducted before the sensory evaluation revealed that Cambodian panelists enjoyed eating cooked rice more than 2 times per day. These results confirm the importance of rice in the diet of Cambodians.
In order to reduce the environmental problems caused by vinegar residue emission, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation technology was used to produce alcohol and xylose from vinegar residue. Due to pretreatment of vinegar residue is vital for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, uniform experimental designs were used to investigate each of the 5 factors involved in sodium hydroxide and xylanase pretreatment. The results showed that the optimal conditions for vinegar residue pretreatment were determined as solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:11(W/V), NaOH concentration of 2.2%, pretreatment temperature of 71 °C, pretreatment time of 80 min and xylanase usage of 0.3 mL/g. Under this condition, the total sugar yield of vinegar residue was 664 mg/g. Following simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, alcohol and xylose were produced, the yields of ethanol and xylose were 319 mg/g and 179 mg/g, respectively. Therefore, the feasibility of producing alcohol and xylose by enzymatic degradation of vinegar residue was achieved.
This study aimed to develop a method for the detection of food residues on the surface of stainless steel plates using fluorescence fingerprint (FF). Extracts of 20 food products were dropped on stainless steel plates as a model of food residues. Fluorescence fingerprint measurement of the food residues was carried out; the food residue samples were subsequently collected by swabbing the surface to determine adenosine triphosphate (ATP) luminescence. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) models were constructed to predict ATP luminescence (R2 = 0.60; RMSE = 1.57×105 RLU) and solid content (R2 = 0.46; RMSE = 0.89×10−4 g) on stainless steel surfaces from the FF data. From the coefficients of the prediction model, NADH and NADPH showed the greatest contribution to the prediction of solid content.
β-Lactoglobulin is a major allergen in whey, which have more than 9 variants. Among them, variants A and B are the most predominant forms in bovine milk. In this study, variants A and B were purified by combining gel filtration chromatography with anion-exchange chromatography for the first time. The purity of variants A and B were 96.2% and 94.3%, and the variants yield was 35.56% from the whey. The structure characterization has been monitored by the Circular dichroism spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Fluorescence spectroscopy. IgG binding of variants was evaluated by Western blotting which proved both keep well and β-Lactoglobulin B had a stronger ability. The substitution Val of Ala in β-Lactoglobulin B decreased its hydrophobic packing. In short, β-Lactoglobulin B had a stronger antigenicity but smaller hydrophobic packing than that of A.
This study aimed to reveal the chemical and flavor profiles of rice-flavor baijiu by comparison with awamori and kome-shochu, traditional Japanese liquors. Rice-flavor baijiu is similar to awamori and kome-shochu with regard to ingredients and the fermentation starter. Of the 15 rice-flavor baijiu samples in this study, 3 had a light yellow to dark-brown color. Dark-brown samples had high glucose and low amino acid contents. Lactic acid was detected in all rice-flavor baijiu samples. Compared to awamori and kome-shochu, rice-flavor baijiu contained more acetic acid. Thirty-four volatile compounds in rice-flavor baijiu were identified and quantified. In all, 18 compounds in rice-flavor baijiu, 15 in awamori and 13 in kome-shochu had an odor activity value (OAV) of >1. Of these, 11 compounds showed a three-fold higher OAV in rice-flavor baijiu than in awamori and kome-shochu. Principal component analysis revealed that ethyl lactate is a key volatile compound that is distinct to rice-flavor baijiu.
‘Ruby Roman’ is a high-end table grape cultivar which has very large and bright red berries rich in light sweet juice. We characterised ‘Ruby Roman’ grapes by sensory evaluation and analysis of volatile aroma and taste compounds. A sensory evaluation by expert panellists using qualitative data comparisons of five grape cultivars revealed that ‘Ruby Roman’ exhibited a fruity character in common with ‘Pione’. Component profiling of aroma and taste compounds revealed that ‘Ruby Roman’ and ‘Pione’ contained 15 esters, which were absent from the other grape cultivars, indicating that these esters were the causes of the fruity character of ‘Ruby Roman’ and ‘Pione’. Analysis by gas chromatography-olfactometry and a comparison between quantitative values and odour thresholds were performed, and these results led to the observation that ethyl 2-methylbutanoate and ethyl butanoate were the characteristic esters in ‘Ruby Roman’ associated with the fruity aroma characteristic of this grape cultivar.
The caking of sugar is generally due to the mutual adhesion of crystals by dissolution and recrystallization of the crystal surface, and involves diverse and complex factors. Therefore, it is generally difficult to predict the cause of caking. This study aimed to establish a method to evaluate the extent of caking using dynamic vapor sorption isotherms to predict the caking of sugar. Grain size, powder characteristics, dynamic vapor sorption/desorption, and breaking measurement values for 29 different granulated sugars from different companies and regions throughout Japan were measured and then analyzed for correlations. Correlations were observed between caking and grain size for all samples as well as between caking and moisture sorption/desorption, verifying the utility of the dynamic vapor sorption measurement as a potential method to predict caking.
Unheated soymilk (raw soymilk), which was prepared in the laboratory, was heated sequentially at two different temperatures. The proportion of protein particles in the soymilk sample subjected to a low-to-high two-step heating procedure (heating at 70 or 80 °C, then at 100 °C) was almost twice that of a high-to-low two-step heating procedure (heating at 100 °C, then at 70 or 80 °C). The size distribution of oil droplets in the soymilk for two-step heat treatment exhibited a polymodal distribution irrespective of the temperature combinations. However, the low-to-high two-step procedure resulted in an increase in the ratio of aggregated or coalesced oil droplets, in contrast to that for the high-to-low two-step procedure. When using the 7S (β-conglycinin) and 11S (glycinin) fractions separately, each fraction showed increased aggregation after two-step heat treatment, but a 1:1 mixture of the two fractions did not.
The phenomena of taste and aroma are difficult to express in words. To develop a method for evaluating tastes and aromas without language, we focused on salivation, which is involved in eating behavior and can be noninvasively examined. We analyzed correlations between resting salivation and salivation stimulated by individual basic taste solutions at recognizable concentrations. We found that salivation induced by basic tastes was significantly correlated with resting salivation. Interestingly, salivation by sour taste showed a significantly lower correlation than other basic tastes. We also analyzed salivation induced by sweet or umami tastes with azuki, matsutake, or dried bonito-aromas and found that some combinations had a lower correlation, and the preferences for these combinations varied relatively widely. Our results could lead to a novel analytical method for evaluating the quality and preference of taste solutions with aroma based on the relationship between individual resting and stimulated salivation.