日本ジェンダー研究
Online ISSN : 1884-7447
Print ISSN : 1884-1619
ISSN-L : 1884-1619
1999 巻, 2 号
選択された号の論文の6件中1~6を表示しています
  • 野口 芳子
    1999 年 1999 巻 2 号 p. 1-15
    発行日: 1999/08/31
    公開日: 2010/03/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    Die Hexenverfolgungen der Friihen Neuzeit in Europa sind in den vergangenen zweiJahrzehnten in den Mittelpunkt des historischen und soziologischen Forschungs interesses geriickt. Mit der Tatsache, daß vorwiegend Frauen der Hexerei angeklagtwurden, hat sich die neuere Hexenforschung allerdings nur unzureichend auseinandergesetzt. Bis jetzt gibt es deshalbnur wenige empirische Untersuchungen, die sichgezielt mit der Geschichte der Angeklagten unter Berücksichtigung des Geschlechts befassen. Dies versuchte beispielsweise Ingrid Ahrendt-Schulte in ihrer Fallstudie iiberdie Hexenverfolgung in der Stadt Horn.
    In dem vorliegenden Aufsatz wird versucht, auf der Grundlage der o. g. Dissertationreale Gestalten der Angeklagten näher zu betrachten. Die Dissertation untersucht angeklagte Frauen zwischen 1554 und 1603 in der Stadt Horn in der protestantischen Grafschaft Lippe. Die Frauen wurden wegen Schadenzauber, der sowohl Krankheit, Tod, Armut, Unfruchtbarkeit als auch Zwietracht unter Eheleuten verursacht habensollte, angeklagt und hingerichtet. Durch Schadenzauber einer Witwe war eine Fraukrank geworden. Eine Nachbarin hatte eine Sau durch “über den Rücken streichen” krank gemacht. Weil eine Frau mit einem Stein einem Paar das Kammerfenster einschlug, bewirkte dies beim Mann Impotenz. Es gibt hier eine Welt, in der manglaubte, ohne Hinrichtung der Hexe könne eigene Krankheit oder eigene Impotenz nichtgeheilt werden. Die Furcht vor Folterungen veranlate fast alle Angeklagten, Schuld bekenntnisse abzulegen, worauf sie durch Verbrennen hingerichtet wurden. Ein Mannmachte Schulden bei einer Witwe. Als sie von ihm die Riickzahlung forderte, verweigerteer dies und wurde gewalttätig. Die Witwe rannte auf die Straße und drohteihm dort. Das galt als Schadenzauber, da bei ihm Kiihe starben. Die Witwe wurde alsHexe hingerichtet. Dem Mann wurden seine Schulden erlassen. Daraus ergibt sich einunglaubliches Drama, in dem das Gute und das Bose die Plätze wechseln.
    Damals war Schadenzauber jedem verstandlich. Er vererbte sich als Kunst unter denFrauen innerhalb der Familie. Das Paradigma nutzten die männlichen Zauberer aus. Wenn z. B. ein Heiler einem Kind nicht mehr helfen konnte, bezichtigte er durcheinfache Tricks eine bestimmte Frau des Schadenzaubers. Die Frau wurde als Hexehingrichtet, während der Mann unbestraft blieb. Der Zauber unterlag also je nach demGeschlecht einem “double standard”. Die Diskriminierung der Frauen im Hexenproze Awar nicht das Ergebnis gezielter Frauenfeindlichkeit, sondern eines Denkens in Geschlechterstereotypen und insofern strukturell bedingt.
  • 波多野 豪
    1999 年 1999 巻 2 号 p. 17-29
    発行日: 1999/08/31
    公開日: 2010/03/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    Since Ellen Swallow had pointed out that the field of ecology involved the humansociety, ecology has been not only one target of studies but also issues of socialmovement. Nature is being changed by action of human beings. The equilibrium ofnatural life system is not kept automatically only by itself. This reveals that the present environment problem brings out not only exhaustion of natural resources but crisis of sustainability.
    As the environmental destruction and the pollutions are closely related with thesocial economic structure and the discriminatory social structure, the socially weakpeoples are suffering from damages at any time. For example, the environmental orfood pollutions have done damages to the peoples who were forced to live under them.
    Consequently, it is natural to think that ecology is a target of social movement. But why do women often put the ecology into practice?
    The concept of gender gives a very nice framework to analyse social phenomainvolving ecological science. But we cannot answer the solution only by the conceptof gender.
    So this paper does not aim to analyse or redefine ecological movement on theviewpoint of gender, but to clarify the gender bias observed in the field of ecology. And also this paper tries to describe the process how to establish gender-free society, reflecting on the structure of ecological movement promoted inevitably by mainlyfemale peoples.
  • 小矢野 哲夫
    1999 年 1999 巻 2 号 p. 31-42
    発行日: 1999/08/31
    公開日: 2010/03/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper discusses gender differences with respect to language in a social setting. I willexamine the status of current language through gender differences and tangible methods tobreaking gender discrimination in language.
    The embodiment of the power balance between men and women in a language society isobserved as being mainly dominated by the male half. It is superfluous to discuss the importanceof this fact. In this paper the focus will be on observing the present status of gender differencesin language and reaffirm the existence of gender differences based on the results of my observations.
    Nonetheless, the focus is not on supporting the fact that conventional gender roles be fixed. The emphasis is on consideration of the concrete measures employed in the field of languageand action relationships. Gender requires an interdisciplinary approach. Therefore, these pointshave been listed in the hopes that they may act as a stepping stone for discussion in the future.
    1. No Borders in Language between Male and Female Speech. Women stand either at a level equivalent or higher to men in speech in situations of informal conversation. It is a fact that society does not feel incongruous with this type of conversation often seen in modern day soap operas where young people are cast in leading roles. It bringsus to the conclusion that this manifests itself as part of the present day female usage of language.
    2. Gender in Language Society through Discriminative Expressions on Gender Apparentin Literature. There are expressions which generalize women and men. They include “onna to iu mono wa” (Ideal women should/are), “otoko to iu mono wa” (Ideal men should/are), “onnano kusei ni” (Even though you are a woman), and “otoko no kusei ni” (Even though youare a man). These expressions, particularly towards women, imply negativity on theirabilities, characteristics and behaviour. A strong negative view is not implied when these expressionsare aimed at men.
    3. Prevention against Sexual Harassment.
    “Sexual Harassment” was exclusively pointed at women in the past. However, sexualharassment towards men has become a more serious issue especially within Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1999, it was assumed that there were some men who felt rather hurt whena phrase such as “otoko no kusei ni konjoo ga nai” (You as a man should not give up so easily. You are a chicken!) was used though it had nothing to do with gender. This was a result ofboth male and female attitudes that the man should patiently carry out his duties from theviewpoint of social and cultural gender differences. There is a large appreciation of theelimination of this unneeded gender discrimination to afford a more favourable work environment. If we are unconsciously using these phrases which creates insecurity and discomfort, I believe it would be beneficial to eliminate them and to strive to begin to use new phrases.
    One can say that communication among humans is communication among personalities. I wishthat we could express our ideas with specific sounds with immense consideration for the otherparty. If this research can be utilized to create a subtle movement towards gender equality inlanguage society, then it will have been worthwhile.
  • 〈メンズリブ〉の誕生
    大山 治彦, 大束 貢生
    1999 年 1999 巻 2 号 p. 43-55
    発行日: 1999/08/31
    公開日: 2010/08/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper considers the subject under the following heads: (i) the history about one of most important stream of men's movements in Japan; and (ii) the Menzuribumovement.
    In the middle of 1970's, men, got a influence from the second wave of feminism, setabout the men's movements, called Manribu in general. It seems to be not an importation from the men's movements of the United States but an original movement by Japanesemen.
    One organization, Otoko no Kosodate wo Kangaerukai (The Men's Group Rethinking About Childcare), founded in 1978, Tokyo, is one of frontier in the men's movements. They tried to change the oppressive men with masculinities for the non-oppressive onethrough the domestic work and childcare. We name it “domestic work and childcare type of men's movement”.
    Other organization, Ajia no Baibaishun ni Hantaisuru Otokotachi no Kai (The Men Against Prostitution in Asia), founded in 1988, Tokyo, asserted the oppres sivites of menagainst women.
    Another organization, Menzuribu Kenkyukai (Men's Liberation Research Group), founded in 1991, Osaka, is a driving force to the expansion of men's movement in 1990's. It proposes the new movement style, called Menzuribu movement, which has a distinctive features in comparison with men's movements in the United States. Moreover, Menzuribu Kenkyukai is the next leader of Menzu Senta (Men's Center Japan), founded in 1995, Osaka. It is the first men's center and, today, the core of men's movements in Japan.
    Menzuribu has the two meanings as follows. One is the men's movements as a whole, with the exceptation with gay movements, and the other is this Menzuribu movement.
    Menzuribu movement has focussed on the masculine oppressions against men, withoutanti-eminist tendencies such as masculinist men's movement in the United States. Andit has learnt a feminist viewpoint of “the personal is political”. We can say their movement is counterpart of feminist movements. These are the significance of the Menzuribu movement. Menzuribu movement has some problems to solve in its activities. They are: i)a littleof the interests gaps between 20s-30s years old and 40s-50s; ii) the lack of education program for beginners without knowledge about feminism and gender issues; and iii) heterosexism and homophobia.
  • ロンドン大学大学院生を対象とした事例研究
    西尾 亜希子
    1999 年 1999 巻 2 号 p. 57-71
    発行日: 1999/08/31
    公開日: 2010/03/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this paper, I intend to focus on the factors which motivated Japanese postgraduate students to study abroad, based on interviews with 52 (27 male and 25 female) Japanese postgraduate students.
    The number of Japanese undergraduate and postgraduate students who entered British universities totalled 4, 665 in 1996, 544 of whom were postgraduate students atthe University of London. Many male and some female students aim to advance theircareers by studying abroad. However, for other female students, it is the desire to studyor live abroad which is the primary motivation. There are actually a few students whohave used the fact of ‘studying abroad’ as a good excuse for leaving Japan, eithere scaping from work or some disappointment in love.
    In general, postgraduate Japanese students study very hard regardless of their aimsafter completing their courses, and often at some cost to their health. As a result, all postgraduate Japanese students appear to be very similar in that they are hard work ingpeople. In reality, however, the meaning of ‘study’ varies greatly among these people. For those who are career minded, studying abroad as postgraduate students opens theway to advancing their careers. For others, studying abroad is a way `to enjoy studying for their own personal-growth'.
    However, there are those in this second group who may suffer a breakdown immediate lyafter completing their course. For them, the degree they finally obtain doesnot ensure a passport to enter the outside world, rather it signifies ‘an end’. This means that they have lost the source of concentration and the challenge of ‘hardship’. They may feel extremely lonely and start seeking the next ‘outlet’ which makes themhappy: ‘marriage’ or something other alternative. They are not ready to work due to the influence of the family environment, particularly the close relationship between mother and daughter, and the gender difference seen in the labour market.
    I will suggest two ideas: One is that the number of scholarships and grants shouldbe increased to help women strongly motivated but financially unable to support themselves to study abroad. The other is that Women's Studies and Gender Studies should be introduced at the higher educational level to encourage young women to beindepen dently minded and mentally prepared prior to leaving Japan.
  • 田結庄 順子
    1999 年 1999 巻 2 号 p. 73-85
    発行日: 1999/08/31
    公開日: 2010/03/17
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the current state of the gender problem from the viewpoint of pedagogy of teaching subject and to think over a possible concrete stepfor a solution to the problem. The significance of taking up the gender problem in the school education is to bring upmental faculties among pupils to allow critical assessment of the gender phenomena reproduced in schools, in other words the potency rightfully facing tha actuality surrounding the pupils' selves. The number of reports on the examples of educational embodiments in this context are increasing, but still we can point out several problems as follows.
    1. In this country, the participation in the gender problem seen in the school educationis limited to the institutes and the teaching staff in the advanced regions. The genderproblem has not been yet an issue to the whole country. In the improved new curriculumsto be enforced in 2002, too, the introduction effort of the gender perspectivein terms of the principle for curriculum frame works does not rest on a firm base.
    2. In school, the gender problem tends to be conducted under a cosy motto or a neatslogan, resulting in moralistic and mere goodness oriented approaches. Consenquently, the drift of general situation is to ward the production of pupils liable to overlook thegender harassment on the part teachers displayed as “like a man” or “like a woman”content which are presented routinely under the pretext of a “hidden curriculum.”ecured.
    3. It was made clear that the pupils' “learning” of the gender-bias has not been secured satisfactorily. The situation is attributable to the fact that teachers are not fullyconscious of the “customer satisfaction” or “accountability” of the present age in theirconduct to ward pupils and parents.
    4. In Ontario, Canada, the educational guidelines based the gender prespective satisfyingthe equality between men and women, together with the provisions for theassociated environment for teachers, have been existent since 1970's. In Norway, gender-equal textbooks based on the “Equality of the Sexes Law”have been adapted toimplement systematic gender-free education.
    From the backgrounds mentioned above, the following can be pointed out as the problems which now confront us.
    In the first place, “Guideline for the textbooks seeking after the equality between menand women in school education” must made. This will enable teachers to fulfill gender-freeeducation as a matter of course with steadfast self-awarenss.
    At the same time, this will initiate the children of the next generation in the concreteimage of the equality between both sexes. Furthermore, it will advance harmonious relationsbetween school knowledge and commonsense in daily life.
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