This paper investigates the influence of social networks and evaluation factors such as empowerment, subjective norms and cost on volunteers’ behavior and intentions. Volunteer group members in Ashiya City (Hyougo, Japan) and other nearby cities were surveyed. Volunteer group representatives distributed questionnaires to members of their group and related groups, to be returned by mail. A total of ninety-one participants responded. Structural Equation Modeling revealed that social networks, especially strong ties (intra and intergroup), had direct influence on members’ behavior, whereas evaluation factors mainly influenced members’ intentions. These results suggest that group members determine their behavior and intentions multilaterally, based on social networks and evaluation factors.
National parks first appeared in Japan in 1930s, and many of them were composed mainly of mountainous landscape. However, in the process of their selection, seaside landscapes have become incorporated as national park as well. The purpose of this study is to investigate the political process by which ‘the national landscape’ of national parks is determined by examining a case of incorporation. In this investigation a disagreement is found between two experts, Mr. Tsuyoshi Tamura and Mr. Tetsugoro Wakimizu. This again emphasizes their different points of view and their different ideas of what national parks ought to be. The paper reveals diverse views on landscapes and national parks and various schemes behind the decision of them.