Interdisciplinary Information Sciences
Online ISSN : 1347-6157
Print ISSN : 1340-9050
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Volume 13 , Issue 1
Showing 1-14 articles out of 14 articles from the selected issue
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  • Zenji KOBAYASHI, Katsushi MURAMOTO, Tatsuya OKADA, Takeshi SEKIGUCHI, ...
    Volume 13 (2007) Issue 1 Pages 1-6
    Released: April 07, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In this paper, we first give an explicit formula of the exponential sum of sum of digits with complex coefficients. As an application of this formula, we obtain a simple expression of Newman-Coquet summation formula related to the number of binary digits in a multiple of three.
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  • Jun ISHIMOTO, Hidehiro HOSHINA, Tadashi TSUCHIYAMA, Hideyuki WATANABE, ...
    Volume 13 (2007) Issue 1 Pages 7-16
    Released: April 07, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The 3-D structure of liquid atomization behavior through a cylindrical nozzle is numerically investigated and visualized by a new type of integrated simulation technique. CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis focused on the consecutive breakup of a liquid column, formation of liquid film, and generation of droplets of a cylindrical flow in the outlet section of the nozzle. Utilizing the governing equations for high-speed atomizing nozzle flow based on the LES-VOF model in conjunction with the CSF model, an integrated parallel computation is performed to clarify the detailed atomization process of a cylindrical nozzle flow and to acquire data, which is difficult to confirm by experiment, such as atomization length, liquid core shape, distribution droplet sizes, spray angle and droplet velocity profiles. According to the present analysis, the atomization rate and the droplets-gas two-phase flow characteristics are found to be controlled by the turbulence perturbation upstream of the injector nozzle, hydrodynamic instabilities at the gas-liquid interface, and shear stresses between the liquid core and periphery of the jet.
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Special Issue on Fundamental Structures of Statistical Inference and Its Applications
  • Toshiyuki TANAKA
    Volume 13 (2007) Issue 1 Pages 17-23
    Released: April 07, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The main objective of this paper is to discuss mathematical validity of the replica method. We focus on the observation that the replica method calculates {\\Bbb E}(logZ) from the moment sequence {\\Bbb E}(Zn)} of a positive random variable Z, or equivalently, it calculates expectation {\\Bbb E}(X) of a random variable X on the basis of its moment generating function \\overline{\\varphi}(u)={\\Bbb E}(euX) while evaluating \\overline{\\varphi}(u) only at positive integers u=1,2,…. This aspect of the replica method will be justified if the moment problem is solved affirmatively. In this paper, we provide some counterexamples for each of which the moment sequence of Z does not uniquely determine {\\Bbb E}(logZ), thereby invalidating unconditional justification of the replica method.
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  • Muneki YASUDA, Kazuyuki TANAKA
    Volume 13 (2007) Issue 1 Pages 25-31
    Released: April 07, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    We propose a Boltzmann machine formulated as a probabilistic model where every random variable takes bounded continuous values, and we derive the Thouless–Anderson–Palmer equation for the model. The proposed model includes the non-negative Boltzmann machine and the Sherrington–Kirkpatrick model with spin-S at S→∞ as a special case. It is known that the Sherrington–Kirkpatrick model with spin-S has a spin glass phase. Thus, the proposed Boltzmann machine is expected to be able to learn practical complex data.
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  • T. HOSAKA, T. KOBAYASHI, N. OTSU
    Volume 13 (2007) Issue 1 Pages 33-42
    Released: April 07, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Image segmentation has recently been studied in a framework of maximum a posteriori estimation for the Markov random field, where the cost function representing pixel-wise likelihood and inter-pixel smoothness should be minimized. The common drawback of these studies is the decrease in performance when a foreground object and the background have similar colors. We propose the likelihood formulation in the cost function considering not only a single pixel but also its neighboring pixels, and utilizing the support vector machine to enhance the discrimination between foreground and background. The global optimal solution for our cost function can be realized by the graph cut algorithm. Experimental results show an excellent segmentation performance in many cases.
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  • Shinpei HARA, Yuta AKIRA, Eisuke ISHII, Masato INOUE, Masato OKADA
    Volume 13 (2007) Issue 1 Pages 43-48
    Released: April 07, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) code has recently become of great interest. The statistical mechanics approach has been used to reveal some characteristics of LDPC in the thermodynamic limit. In this paper, we analyze this system for finite size rather than within the thermodynamic limit through a principal component analysis (PCA) approach. Specifically, both the decoding dynamics of belief propagation (BP) and the phases of the system are visualized and discussed. The result implies that the decoding dynamics roughly corresponds to the system temperature we introduced, and this system has several phases such as ferromagnetic, paramagnetic, and 1RSB spin-glass phases.
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  • Sei SUZUKI, Masato OKADA
    Volume 13 (2007) Issue 1 Pages 49-55
    Released: April 07, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Quantum annealing is a quantum algorithm proposed recently for combinatorial optimization problems. It manipulates time evolution of a quantum mechanical state and obtain an approximate solution. In order to implement the algorithm in classical computers, we propose to apply the density matrix renormalization group method. Simulation of the time evolution of a quantum mechanical state becomes possible by the density matrix renormalization group method for problems of large size. We explain quantum annealing and the density matrix renormalization group method, and present results of numerical simulation using them.
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  • Yukinori TONOSAKI, Yoshiyuki KABASHIMA
    Volume 13 (2007) Issue 1 Pages 57-64
    Released: April 07, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A technique for minimizing the Bethe free energy of Ising spin systems is presented. The technique is based on a property of the Bethe free energy that diagonal elements of the Hessian are generally positive. This implies that solving the extremum condition with respect to a single element with fixing others at each update yields a unique solution which can be easily found by efficient algorithms such as a bisection method and reduces the value of the Bethe free energy. The proposed method, therefore, iterates sequential minimization with respect to a single element, which probably leads to convergence to a local minimum. Practical relevance of the scheme is shown by an application to a problem of multidimensional probabilistic reasoning that arises in a modern wireless communication system.
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Special Issue on Public Policy and Multilevel Governance: A Comparative Analysis
  • Hiraku YAMAMOTO
    Volume 13 (2007) Issue 1 Pages 65-88
    Released: April 07, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This article discusses whether a paradigm of organizational management and public management has been sifted or not, i.e. the continuity of discontinuity of a paradigm. Just like the reflection of modernity, a paradigm shift is not brought about by an instantaneous leap and severance with traditional framework, but rather by a gradual long term scientific revolution. The transformation of organizational management has also proceeded not as a fully changed model having leaped instantaneously, but as a model repeatedly and incrementally modified by the reflection of public policy processes. One of such models is NPM approach underlying the concept of TQM approach brought about by the paradigm shift during the 1990s.
    In this context, we will consider PPP schemes, underlying both NPM approach and TQM approach, as a typical example of multi-dimensional ways of governing. PPP schemes is based on the co-governance as a multi-level governance by the collaboration, cooperation and mutual interpenetration of the trilogy of the three sectors; the public sector, the private business sector, and the civic nonprofit sector. The trilogy model of the three sectors, each of which must be an equal subject and actor of governance in principle, will lead to the setting which would make PPP schemes work more usefully and effectively, expand quality public services, and seize the opportunity to meet needs of citizens as customers and stakeholders.
    In this article, we will scrutinize in turn; (1) a historical overview of the idea of public management in the prewar period, especially the scientific management and the human relations; (2) outstanding management theories in the postwar period, that is, Simon’s theory of decision-making in the administrative organization, and management theories of TQM, the representative of which is Deming; (3) the idea of reinventing government to supplement the dysfunction of bureaucracy; and (4) the trilogy of PPP schemes underlying NPM and TQM as an example of multi-level governance.
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  • Oh Suk YANG
    Volume 13 (2007) Issue 1 Pages 89-102
    Released: April 07, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In light of the competing conceptions of the strength of the British state which lie behind contemporary debates on many of the topics to be dealt within a variety of literature, this article examines competing models of the British state. It explores the environmental factors that posed challenges to the British state’s capacity to ensure the implementation of its policies, and the state’s capacity to act autonomously in the policy process and its potential to structure, if not impose, patterns of political behavior on citizens and local governments. The specific focus of this article is an examination of the extent to which the British state is a political actor in its own right, with its own preferences, and with the capacity to influence the political process to its own ends. Someone may argue that the 1980’s was a time which challenges the traditional understanding of the British state as a weak state. Instead, this article contends that the British state has been a strong state that has not been determined by the content of a certain policy idea, but by ‘who drives the discourse channel toward the public acceptance.’
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  • Gabriele ABELS
    Volume 13 (2007) Issue 1 Pages 103-116
    Released: April 07, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In many policy areas demands for enhanced citizen participation have been met in the last twenty years or so. Recently, the participatory discourse has entered the till then highly expert-oriented debates over science and technology policy-making. In the field of technology assessment in particular, different types of participatory procedures have been developed that aim to include stakeholders, those directly affected and/or the general public at local, national, or even supranational level. Numerous procedures have been employed—above all with regard to social conflicts over biotechnology—in many European countries, but also elsewhere in the world.
    The debate on participatory technology assessment (pTA) is influenced by an almost romanticising picture. Participatory procedures are believed to (1) increase the motivation of those involved, (2) enhance the knowledge and values basis of policy-making, (3) initiate a process of social learning, (4) open up opportunities for conflict resolution and achieving the common good, and (5) improve the level of acceptance and legitimacy of political decisions. A more direct relation between citizens and policy-makers shall foster democracy and accountability. I argue that these claims are based on a reductionism of what ‘true’ democracy is, i.e. deliberative democracy, whereas empirical research on the impacts of participatory procedures displays a more differentiated picture. Participatory procedures are still in an experimental stage; their linkages to the institutions of representative democracy vary from case to case and from country to country—and are, by and large, weak. Consequently, many procedures have, at best, a limited impact on the socio-technological conflict and its resolution. I claim that participatory procedures do not per se improve the democratic legitimacy and accountability of policy-making. In order to do so, their linkage to the political system has to be reconsidered and improved—empirically as well as conceptually.
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  • Noritada MATSUDA
    Volume 13 (2007) Issue 1 Pages 117-127
    Released: April 07, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Today much emphasis has been placed on “governance” and the active participation of citizens in the policy process. Such arguments are based primarily on the recognition that legislative and executive branches have not been responsive enough to meet the needs of citizens. Citizens are expected, then, to play an active role in the policy process and collaborate with other actors such as governments and corporations so that public policy could reflect the citizens’ needs.
    If citizens are to participate in the policy process more actively, however, they must have proper knowledge on public policy and political process; to put it another way, they are required to possess the governability so that the collaboration with other actors could succeed.
    This paper is intended to theoretically review the governability of citizens. Closer attention is given to what policy analysts could do for the improvement of citizens’ governability. It is contended that policy analysts play an active role in the policy process so that policies which they think desirable could be adopted. This paper proceeds as follows. First, modeling the policymaking process, how citizens could influence the process is demonstrated. Next, this paper reveals that, despite the potential influence of citizens over the policymaking process, policymakers are unlikely to make a policy the citizens want. There exist some limitations of citizens’ governability, which make it difficult for citizens to exert the influence; most policy problems are too technical and too complicated for citizens to deal with. Given the limitations of citizens’ governability, then, attention is paid to the roles of policy analysts in the policy process; how policy analysts could contribute to encouraging meaningful citizen participation and improving the policy process is examined. This paper is concluded by discussing the collaboration among policymakers, citizens and policy analysts in terms of knowledge utilization. The reform of the governance structure requires us to establish a policymaking system which enables policy analysts as well as citizens to actively participate in the policy process.
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  • Hideaki ASHITATE
    Volume 13 (2007) Issue 1 Pages 129-138
    Released: April 07, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Focusing on Japanese foreign aid administration, or officially called Official Development Assistance (ODA), this article discusses two trends since the 1990s, specifically two kinds of changes, which seem to contradict each other. One trend is “participatory ODA,” in which the Japanese government, including the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA), eagerly asks Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) to participate in aid activity. The other is the increasing attempts of MOFA to “steer” Japanese ODA so as to gather more information on the needs of potential recipients and organize coherent aid strategies. This article seeks to contribute to the understanding of these seemingly contradictory trends using the framework of governance, especially that of governance as networks.
    This article first reviews the existing literature on or potentially relevant for Japanese ODA, which reveals that the dominant perspective has rarely assumed an interdependent relationship between the public and private sectors. Next, this article examines why scholars have not focused on networks in the past, and concludes that one possible reason is the prior existence of unilateral relationships between the sectors whereby the private section did not have to cede its autonomy to the public one. It then looks at how the situation concerning ODA has changed since the mid-1980s, as evidenced by the Japanese government’s leadership in the field and its attempts to establish national aid strategies, as well as by the increasing participation by the private sector, especially by NGOs. After that, this article goes on to discuss how the public sector has become more systematic with respect to ODA, focusing on two important examples: the setting up of country and regional study groups and the establishment of a system of feedback among MOFA, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and the Institute for International Cooperation (IFIC), an agency of JICA. Finally, by means of an empirical analysis, this article examines the effect of the institutional changes on the behavior of businesses with respect to ODA, and concludes that such changes have had a statistically significant effect on business, thereby supporting the use of “governance as networks” as a viable approach for studying Japanese ODA.
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  • Josuke IKEDA
    Volume 13 (2007) Issue 1 Pages 139-150
    Released: April 07, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Human security has been gaining considerable attentions both from academic and policy audiences, yet there remains one question on how to reconcile its two different types of nature: universal tenet of the concept and territorial character of its implimentation. This paper purports to give a positive answer to this poser by presenting three conditions. They are namely: (1) providing a universal moral foundation of human security, based on the view about human being and harm; (2) actualising the concept by combining international and global efforts, or through the mutual embedment between international policy and global governance; and (3) nevertheless always acknowledging its possible “failures” and thus preparing remedies for them.
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