Minimizing soil and water loss in agricultural land, particularly in arid and semi-arid climatic conditions, is indispensable for environmental protection and agricultural production. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of gypsum application in reducing sediment concentration in runoff and total soil loss. A field experiment was conducted in the village of Dawlatzai in Gardez District, Paktya, Afghanistan. Using a portable rainfall simulator, four erosion plots; gypsum-treated, clover, maize, and control were designed and applied in two replications. Surface runoff experiment using sandy loam and loamy soil textures was conducted in the Laboratory of Land and Water Use Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture. Gypsum mineral was applied at a rate of 5 t ha-1 for both experiments. The results of field experiments showed that the gypsum-treated, clover and maize fields reduced total soil loss by 67.28%, 92.04% and 54.45% compared to the control, respectively. Likewise, surface runoff was reduced by 19.62% in the gypsum-treated field compared to the control field. Similarly, the results of laboratory experiment showed that with application of gypsum, surface runoff was reduced by 38.83% and 37.07% from sandy loam and loamy soil textures with total soil loss reduced by 60.25% and 81.86% compared to control, respectively. Percolation was increased by 2.31 and 2.29 times in sandy loam and loamy soil textures, respectively. Moreover, the application of gypsum significantly reduced sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and boosted the calcium content and flocculation phenomena. Based on these results, it can be suggested and recommended that farmers in Paktya should apply gypsum mineral to their farmlands to enhance water infiltration and minimize surface runoff and soil loss.
Myanmar is one of the centers of genetic diversity of rice as it has heterogeneous geographical and ecological conditions such as hills and mountains. Since 1988, owing to market oriented economic policy and international rice price, traditional varieties have been replaced by improved varieties. Landraces are known for the excellent adaptation to the local conditions; however, their productivity is very low. Increased productivity of the landraces through high input application has not been possible because they are not responsive to the inputs. However, these landraces and traditional varieties possess very useful and important traits for further breeding and genetic improvement of rice. Thus, there is an urgent need for germplasm collection, their conservation and characterization to study the diversity of traditional rice varieties in Myanmar. In recent years, DNA sequence variations have been used as markers for genome analysis since they are independent of environment and growth stages of plant and more reliable than the other phenotypic or biochemical markers. Of the different types of molecular markers, microsatellites have been utilized most extensively, because they can be readily amplified by PCR, present large amount of allelic variation at each locus, are highly informative, and require small amounts of DNA. They have become the versatile molecular markers not only for germplasm diversity studies but also for exploration of targeted gene. In Myanmar, some research on rice landrace diversity by using microsatellites has been done. Therefore, this review aims to take stock of the current status and summarize genetic diversity studies of traditional rice varieties in Myanmar, through the use of microsatellite markers.
The experiments were conducted in the glasshouse of Sugarcane Research and Development Farm, Pyinmana to evaluate the effect of seed cane treatments on sugarcane germination of K-95/84 variety in two planting methods from August-October 2015 and June-August 2016. The glasshouse experiments were conducted in 2×4 factorial arrangement in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCB) with three replications. It evaluated two different planting methods (single budded setts and three budded setts) with pre-planting treatments by using different levels of lime (0, 7.5, 15, 22.5 g l-1), different levels of topsin fungicide (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 g l-1) and different degree of hot water (0, 50, 52, 54°C). Single budded setts gave the earliest and higher percentage of germination than three budded setts. Among the pre-planting treatments, the earliest and higher percentage of germination was obtained from the lowest level of lime 7.5 g l-1 (L1), topsin fungicide 0.5 g l-1 (F1) and hot water 50°C (H1) treatments. As a combined effect of two factors, single budded setts with lime 7.5 g l-1 (SL1), topsin fungicide 0.5 g l-1 (SF1) and single budded setts with hot water 50°C (SH1) gave maximum germination. Thus, this study highlighted that the single budded setts with lime 7.5 g l-1, topsin fungicide 0.5 g l-1 and hot water 50°C treatment should be used for the uniformity of germination.
Urban forests provide a variety of benefits to citizens, including micro climate regulation, soil erosion regulation, and wildlife habitats. Under the biodiversity offset system, the equivalency and similarity of biodiversity and ecosystem services (BD/ESs) are important but controversial issues. The purpose of this study is to develop a simple method to assess aspects of the equivalency and similarity of forest BD/ESs and consider their applicability to biodiversity conservation policy. The study was conducted on a selection of 41 forests in Nagoya City. Several combinations of forests were recognized as similar providers of BD/ESs. Historical land-use change was also important in assessing forest equivalency and similarity for biodiversity conservation policy.
There are several past researches conducted on “theme-community” wherein the initiatives and/or relationship among stakeholders focus on a certain product or concept regardless of traditional political boundaries. This paper focuses on tofu or its raw material, soybean. Tofu is one of the main soybean processed products and an integral part of a traditional meal in Japan. Although the amount of its domestic production and consumption have only changed slightly, the number of tofu companies have been drastically decreased from 50,000 in 1960 to 8,000 in 2014. This can be attributed to the inability of small-scale tofu companies to compete with prevalent mass production of large-scale processing companies, and to respond to the demand of supermarkets for much lower retail price. In order to provide possible ways to gain resiliency for local small-scale companies, this study aims to determine the adaptation strategies of a local tofu company in Saitama Prefecture, Japan using the case study approach. Company visits and key informant interviews revealed that the local tofu company conducted (1) product development in accordance with season, farming community and consumer demand, (2) introduction of TEIKEI for soybean farmers, and (3) implementation of innovative selling activities. Moreover, these initiatives further paved way for sustainable rural development. For further study, there is a need to determine the development of its partnership with and its respective impact to the local soybean farmers.
The purpose of this study is to identify the disparity of living conditions and the effects on the living standards’ Satisfaction of the households in the Sri Lanka and on the Tea Industry. Sri Lanka has progressively developed its status as middle low income country, while regional income and social disparity has still remained, especially in estate sector. Tea is a main industry of estates. Past studies indicated that people live in the low quality of housing with low income, while different articles mentioned that number of low income family in rural area is larger than in other sectors. This analysis applies a descriptive method with binary logistic regression. Quantitative analysis relies on the secondary data and qualitative descriptions rely on the primary survey. The qualitative analysis revealed that people living on estates are more likely to feel dissatisfaction compared to those living in urban, rural, and farming areas. Alternatively, the results of the survey showed that residents in three residential areas on the tea industry are not much different regarding their livelihood satisfaction.
Previous studies have shown that most smallholder irrigation schemes in developing countries in Africa, have proved to be unsustainable beyond external assistance. The low performance of most smallholder irrigation schemes is largely attributable to unreliable and inadequate water delivery. This research assessed the on-farm water management performance for Fuve-Panganai irrigation scheme in Zaka District of Zimbabwe. The objective of this study is to assess the on-farm water management performance for the irrigation scheme in terms of water demand and supply. The irrigation water demand for 204 ha of dry beans for the winter irrigation season (April to August) was estimated using the FAO CROPWAT. The seasonal water supply was calculated using the 2012 to 2016 recorded canal water depths. The Relative Water Supply (RWS) index was calculated from the water demand and supply. 38 randomly selected farmers, members of the waters user’s association and relevant agencies were interviewed to understand the decision-making process and the overall performance of the scheme. The results showed a stable water supply for the five years with a coefficient of variation of 0.2. The water supply was greater than water demand during the winter mid-irrigation period (May to July) with an average RWS of 1.59. The results correspond with results from the interview survey in which more than 90 percent of the farmers were satisfied with the irrigation management performance. However, 37 percent reported to have experienced water shortages. This is due to the heavy distribution losses by damaged pipes and leaking water valves. The irrigation system is in dire need for rehabilitation to minimize water losses.
Rainforestation is a Visayas State University (VSU) technology designed as an alternative method to Philippine Government’s thrust for massive reforestation. Rainforestation’s purpose is to plant denuded lands with Philippine Native Trees together with high value crops and fruit trees. With this, ecological functions could be re-established while subsistence farmers would be provided with a stable and sustainable income. For the past twenty plus years, the first batch of individual and group adopters have toiled to succeed in their Rainforestation efforts and are, at present, already reaping the fruits of their labors. Moreover, said adopters are also inspiring new groups of adopters to also adopt Rainforestation. Yet, such things would not be possible without environmental education that has been provided by VSU, Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), and the Environment Leadership Training Initiatives (ELTI). Hence, this study aims to understand how Rainforestation has affected the adopters’ lives for the past twenty years, examine how environmental education has contributed to sustainable development, and decipher how environmental education has influenced new sets of adopters to go into Rainforestation. In order to achieve the said objectives, this study makes use of hermeneutic phenomenology and focus group discussions to arrive at the adopters’ points of views and sentiments towards the connection between environmental education, sustainable development, and Rainforestation. Furthermore, this study concludes that the adopters have already enjoyed economic benefits, sustainable source of water, and biodiversity restoration through Rainforestation adoption. This study also concludes that environmental education is one of the main factors why individuals and groups have adopted Rainforestation by informing them that growing native trees together with fruit trees is doable and possible. Lastly, this study further concludes that the spread of Rainforestation has been an offshoot of the greater reach of education and information dissemination.
Copper is an essential element for cell organisms. However, irregularity copper level could have effect on the growth of organism. In this research, we aim at consideration of copper compounds toxicity against larvae of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758) by statistic assays. Four days old of test fish had an average 7.10±0.03 mm of length and 9.72±0.04 mg of fresh weight. All experiments were carried out for a period of 48 to 96 hours at 27–30°C. The number of dead fish was counted every 24 hours and the mortality rate was determined after 96 hours. The statistical data was evaluated by Finney’s probit analysis method. The fish died 50% (LC50 95% confidence limits) after 48, 72, 96 hours of concentration copper chloride (CuCl2) 595.75, 231.11, 124.64 μg/L, respectively, and copper nitrate (Cu (NO3)2) 1,025.40, 588.79, 456.50 μg/L, respectively. The LC50 results clearly show that copper compounds toxicity for fish increased with increasing concentration and exposure time. The percentage of survival decreased with increasing of both copper compound concentrations and it was significantly different from control (p<0.01). This study showed that Nile tilapia larvae were more sensitive to copper chloride than copper nitrate. Further study needs the processes by which these chemicals affect biochemical changes of the fish.
The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of heat treatment on antioxidant properties of crude extract from Moringa oleifera (peel, pulp, and seed). Total phenolic content and antioxidant properties based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and metal chelating activity were investigated. Results revealed that crude extract obtained from raw moringa peel showed the highest total phenolic content and DPPH radical scavenging activity (3.65 mg gallic acid eq./g DW and 1.35 mg Trolox eq./g DW), followed by pulp (3.44 mg gallic acid eq./g DW and 1.25 mg Trolox eq./g DW) and seed (2.80 mg gallic acid eq./g DW and 0.91 mg Trolox eq./g DW), respectively. The highest FRAP were obtained from the raw moringa peel extract (3.62 mg ferrous eq./g DW), whereas the highest metal chelating activity was found in raw moringa pulp extract 0.42 mg EDTA eq./g DW). All samples with heat treatment at 100°C for 15 min showed lower total phenolic content and antioxidant properties than crude extract from raw moringa samples (P<0.05).
The objective of this review was to study the contribution of organic agriculture (OA) to the development paradigm of Bhutan, Gross National Happiness (GNH). This study examined contributions of OA on GNH on each of the domains under four pillars. The impacts of OA on GNH were assessed using the GNH Project Screening Tool of Agriculture. The tool was developed based on four pillars and nine domains of GNH by Centre for Bhutan Studies (CBS). Each of the screening variable consists of a 4-pointer scale: 1 (negative), 2 (uncertain), 3 (neutral), and 4 (positive). We found that OA and GNH share comparable principles. The principles focusing on the sustainability, well-being of the people, and natural ecosystem while enhancing the economic growth. Further, the result showed a positive score of 120 out of 136 scores. This is way beyond the neutral score of 102. Scoring was from judgement based on the available literature. The apparent result shows that Bhutan has chosen a viable option.
Japan's National land has many steep mountains and few flat lands. We performed slant ground use for a long time to secure farmland, in Japan. In slope protection methods of the sloping farmland, there are fundamental two types of “slope tamping” and “stone wall”. The slope protection methods of the sloping farmland are one of the elements characterizing a scene including sloping farmland as a thing peculiar to area. In this paper, we analyzed the type of the slope protection method of sloping farmland in the point of “one hundred selection of Japanese sloping farmlands” and the representative sloping farmland in Japan using a subsurface geological map drawn on a scale of 1 to 200000. The geology in each point of target area was classified into three main groups as volcanic rock, sedimentary rock and metamorphic rock. Three main groups were further classified by rock types or geological timescale. We formed clear that rock types or geological timescale of the subsurface geology in the point was related to the choice of the slope protection method of sloping farmland. We conducted a field survey based on this classification. As a result, in region where two or more subsurface geologies are adjacent, the rock of the subsurface geology next to each other in domains from the subsurface geological feature border to around 200m is used as materials of the protection method of sloping farmland.
This study was conducted at Pwintphyu and Pakokku Townships, Magway Region, Myanmar in September 2016 and January 2017. The objectives of this study were to identify the farmers' perception and knowledge about postharvest handling practices of sesame and to compare the postharvest handling practices of sesame farmers between different areas of Myanmar. Total of 136 respondents were interviewed to understand the farmers' practices for postharvest management of sesame. The results showed that all respondents harvested and threshed the seeds manually in both areas. In Pwintphyu Township, postharvest operations were done in the fields, however, in Pakokku Township farmers worked on the threshing floor harden by the pasted cow dung and soil. The postharvest practices: such as stacking, stalks drying and storage methods were different between two areas. Regarding the awareness of postharvest management, stages at which the highest postharvest losses occur were different between two townships due to different management. Good quality seed, high yield, low labour cost and easy to work were also pointed as the advantages of postharvest technology in both areas. Using the plastic net or tarpaulin under the stacking and stalks standing, making threshing floor, harvest in right time, using enough labour, using harvester and covering threshing floor with tarpaulin were the management practices mentioned by respondents as methods to reduce postharvest losses. The farmers are weak in knowledge about storage management such as store pest control and packaging materials. Although farmers have the knowledge of the advantages of postharvest technology and how to reduce the losses, they have not tried to carry out. Therefore, it is needed to train the sesame growers to improve their postharvest practices, and private sector should support to mechanize in postharvest operation.
Cotton production is one of the main agricultural activities in the dry zone of Myanmar. Understanding the farmers’ fertilizer management practices for cotton production was important to develop appropriate technology in order to increase cotton yield and quality. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the farmers’ fertilizer management practices on cotton production in Magway Region. The survey was conducted in eight villages from four districts; Magway, Minbu, Pakokku and Thayet during May to June 2017. Totally 160 famers from survey region were chosen by simple random sampling method and individually interviewed with structured questionnaires. Data were analyzed by using descriptive methods. Most of the farmers generally applied the urea fertilizer (65.6%), NPK-compound fertilizer (93.13%) and foliar fertilizers (82%) as well as farmyard manure (97.5%) in this study area. Most of the farmers interested combine application of compound and foliar fertilizer more than single nutrient fertilizer application. According to the results from the study, the cotton yields were directly related with fertilizer application practices. So, lower crop yield and less profit in cotton production were found due to inadequate amount of fertilizer applied by respondent farmers. Farmers were needed to improve the perception of fertilizer management practices in cotton production for increasing crop yield and household incomes. Farmers’ agricultural knowledge is an immensely valuable resource that provides farmer-to-farmer training or local technology transfer. Therefore, the extension stuffs should be upgraded the awareness of farmers for increasing seed cotton yield and agricultural knowledge on cotton production.
This study focus on changing attitudes of rice farmers towards hybrid rice production from the view of the theory of attitude change. This study aims to determine factors influencing the farmers’ attitude to hybrid rice production with regard to farmers’ personal characters, technological knowledge and access to extension services. This empirical study was conducted during May to September, 2017, in Nay Pyi Taw council area, Myanmar. Data were gathered ten variables for farmer’s personal characters, fifteen variables for the farmers’ technological knowledge and twelve variables for extension contacts by using interview schedule from 198 randomly selected rice farmers and were analyzed by using multiple regression models. The study revealed that 64.6% of farmers changed attitudes to hybrid rice production. It was observed that “education”, “source of information from government and non government” organizations were positively significant related but “family labor” was negatively significant influence to hybrid rice production. Besides, farmers’ technological knowledge such as “seed quality test”, “planting density”, “irrigation methods” and “pests and diseases control methods” were positively significant related to hybrid rice production. Extension contact as “training” was highly significant related to farmers’ attitudes change. However, “field level extension agents”, “farmer to farmer extension”, “NGO” contacts were negatively significant related to attitude towards hybrid rice production. This study highlighted that most intervention factors were high seed cost, technical knowledge, low rice price, cost of production and machinery problems. Create opportunity to access micro finance and encourage to private sector participation and also market opportunity. Moreover, clear policy implication is needed and change to effective communication with training using practical design and participatory approach manner to farmers’ attitudes change in Myanmar.
In Cambodia, some studies found that groundwater in some areas was contaminated by heavy metals and chemicals. Those contaminants can harm to human health if it is not properly treated. The research aims to analyze groundwater quality to find out the suitability of parameters for drinking and irrigation purpose, and to understand the condition of groundwater quantity used by local farmers. The study was conducted in Sre Ampil II Village, Chheu Teal Commune, Kien Svay District, Kandal Province in June 2017. Water samples from 6 tube wells with the depth ≥ 20 m and ≥ 50 m were collected to analyze its water quality. The sampling sites were done at the front-part, middle-part and rare-part of the village. Some parameters of drinking water: pH, TDS, EC, turbidity, hardness, As, Fe, Mn, Cl-, F, NO3-, NO2-, SO42-, Escherichia coli and total coliform were collected to analyze its concentration while the parameters such as pH, TDS, EC, hardness, salinity, As, Mn, Fe, SO42-, Cl-, NO3-, PO43-, NH4-, Ca2+, Mg2+, and Na+ were collected to analyze water quality for irrigation purpose. The results showed that only three of fifteen parameters exceeded desirable limit of FAO and the national standard of Cambodia as Mn concentration averagely was surpassed the standard limits (0.4 mg/L), especially in well 6 (2.64 mg Mn/L). For the concentration of harness, it was happened only in well 1 and 2 with its concentration of 306 mg/L and 360 mg/L, respectively, which was above the national standard (300 mg/L), yet it is below the standard recommended by FAO. E. coli and total coliform were also presented in all wells while its concentration were highly exceeded the guideline. The results of parameters in irrigation water from three tube wells showed that Mn (2.64 mg/L) and K+ (5.19 mg/L) surpassed the guideline of FAO as it was only 0.2 mg/L and 2 mg/L, respectively, while other parameters were below the guideline. Considering this value as standard, the waters in the well 2 and 3 could problematic for long-term irrigation. Based on the groundwater testing, it could be concluded that water quality in the study is good for drinking and irrigating purpose as most of the parameters are below the guideline of Cambodia national standard and FAO.
Atis or Annona squamosa Linnor Sugar Apple in English is one of the top 10 tropical and exotic fruits but one of the forgotten fruits in the Philippines. It is a sweet and creamy fruit with lots of seeds. Its flesh is sweet, white to yellow and resembles and taste like custards. The edible portion coats the seeds generously. It has a distinct sweet smelling fragrance. It is high in energy, an excellent source of Vitamin C and manganese, a good source of thiamine and Vitamin B 6, and provides Vitamin B2, B3,B9, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, and potassium in fair quantities. This study utilized this fruit as ingredient of different kinds of desserts such calamay, deep fried dessert, butter scotch and tart. These desserts are prepared in different ways using tools, utensils and equipment which are available in rural communities. Dessert is important because it can enhance ones physical and emotional wellness in numerous ways if approached properly. Hence, the objectives of this study is to determine the acceptability levels of different dessert products using atis as main ingredient in the five sensory attributes such as appearance, taste, flavour, texture and overall liking. It further aimed to determine the shelf life and the marketability of each product. This is an experimental study with 100 participants composed of food experts to judge the different products using the four point Hedonic Scale. It was found out that the four products are all acceptable in the five sensory attributes. Each product has different shelf life with calamay having the shortest shelf life and butter scotch and tart having the longest. It was also found out that all the products are marketable. It can be concluded that Atis “Annona squamosa Linn” can be used in producing different desserts. It is then recommended that these products be promoted so that the forgotten Atis can gain recognition as a good ingredient for dessert and not only to be eaten as raw and so can be fully utilized.
Being one of the portions of land degradation, fertility depletion is a major barrier in crop productivity in agricultural sector. While we made attempt to increase crop productivity for food security, this study focused on investigating the fertility status of the soil and the major factors that influenced the nutrient level. The studies were carried out in Naypyitaw Union Territory during 2016 - 2017. The first study emphasized on major nutrient level in Naypyitaw region. A total of 240 soil samples were collected from 8 townships of 2 districts and analyzed. Soil analyses were performed for soil acidity, organic carbon, total Nitrogen, available P and K. Using descriptive statistic, the nutrient levels were evaluated in study area. The objective of second study was to evaluate the major and minor nutrient status in prominent specific rice fields in two townships. (Pobbathiri and Zeyar Thiri). Soil samples were collected from 22 farmer’s fields and analyzed to identify soil macro and specific micro nutrients content. The Chi-square test was used to analyze for different location and different cropping patterns. First study showed that about 50% of Naypyitaw agricultural lands is low in Organic Carbon, 82% and 90% of land were also deficient in total N and available P, respectively. The second study showed that the deficiencies of total N, available P, S and Zn were detected in all rice fields. These nutrient deficiencies are not totally dependent on grown crops. It may be due to insufficient application of nutrients amount and type. It was also found that no farmers apply sufficient amount of organic and inorganic fertilizers. The results of the present study suggested that the effective education system was essential for farmers to adopt the advanced fertility technology regarding balanced fertilization of macro and micro nutrient..
Natural disasters have caused enormous impacts on rural societies in both developed and developing countries for the recent years. Due to climate change, the frequency and intensity of extreme weather have increased and it is predicted to be more rampant for the coming decades. As rural societies are mainly dependent on agriculture, the rapid recovery and reconstruction of damaged agricultural lands and infrastructure is crucial to enhance their resilience. The rapid measures and actions in the post-disaster can reduce the impacts and can help farmers save their livelihoods as well as consumers ensure their provisions. This paper focuses on administrative issues in the recovery management in the post-disaster period in Japan. Especially, it takes up the underlying issues that impede the disaster recovery process and the application of Geographic Information System (GIS) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in case of earthquake and flood disasters including storms and heavy rainfall. The data was collected through questionnaire survey to the agricultural departments in all the prefectural offices in Japan. From the results, the administrative issues were attributed to the complexity of project procedures and documentation, human resources, rural planning, the lack of capacity in construction companies, in most of the prefectures. The use of GIS and UAV was limited in many prefectures due to the lack of knowledge or experience. However, GIS could help the recovery processes quicken for some prefectures. Based on the findings, it is suggested to make a manual about GIS database building which can be shared among prefectural offices and farmers to inherit the past lessons and enhance resilience for the future.
Wheat is the major crop and staple food in Afghanistan. Though it is a strategic crop in the country, the nation has never been self-sufficient in wheat domestic production. Yet as a wheat deficit country, it has been highly reliant on wheat and flour imports together with international humanitarian food aids. Thereby, such tremendous dependency on external sources has often led to considerable wheat price fluctuations in Afghan wheat markets associated with imports superfluity or distortions over the years. However, despite the overall weak performance of wheat market in Afghanistan since 2001, the country has got somehow relative stability in this regard over the recent years. Therefore, this study was conducted to address the hurdle through a holistic fashion focusing on both wheat domestic production as well as market aspects in Afghanistan. For production, the study was designed to detect the key underlying factors behind wheat domestic production shortfalls, and for market analysis, wheat price trend was evaluated to determine better policy options so that Afghanistan can achieve better functioning wheat markets in the long run. After all, the findings of this study suggest that there are five mutually exclusive key common factors (invisible factors) behind wheat domestic production quantity and quality failure. Moreover, regarding wheat market stability, Pakistan has been identified as the key disruptive player in the beginning while the Central Asian countries particularly Kazakhstan has recently been the key contributor to wheat market stability in Afghanistan. Therefore, beside concrete policies to boost wheat domestic production within the country, stronger trade ties with Kazakhstan certainly ensure better wheat market performance in Afghanistan.
The Stung Sen Core Area is situated at the southeastern end of the Tonle Sap Lake, and comprises an area of 6,355 ha. It was created under the Royal Decree on the establishment of the Tonle Sap Biosphere Reserve (TSBR), dated 10 April 2001, and aims to protect unique evergreen riverine forests and associated vegetation assemblages. Stung Sen is the buffer zone of the three core zones within the TSBR, and provides the most important inland wetland in Southeast Asia, both for biodiversity conservation and for livelihoods based on the harvesting of aquatic resources and agricultural farming in the surrounding areas. This core area has been interrupted by an invasive alien plant, namely Mimosa pigra (M. pigra), which has had significant physical and economic impacts upon the natural habitat, local community livelihoods, animals and plants, human health, jobs and the ecosystem. This study discusses the negative impacts of the invasive M. pigra on local livelihoods. It uses economic analysis to calculate the cost of its impact and the cost for recovery; and then provides recommendations on how these impacts can be mitigated. The distribution of M. pigra in core areas has been mapped, and only those areas, which have a high-density of M. pigra, are identified for economic analysis in this study. Face to face interviews were carried out with local authorities, rangers, community members, and farmers within the Stung Sen Core Area, Phat Sonday District. The data analysis is focused on the impact on farming land, fishing yields, local income generation, and natural habitat distruction. This paper is developed on the basis of the results of a pilot site experiment on methods of removing M. pigra to explore the best option for mitigating the spread of M. pigra, and removing existing M. pigra from the Stung Sen core area.