The design of central halls of Korean Buddhist temples includes the location of the altar, which is positioned so as to generate more space in front of it, thus allowing it to be used more comfortably. Changes in the location of the altar from the center of the hall to the rear, are related structurally to the Column behind the altar. The structure of the Column is related especially to the size of lateral side of the hall. Methods of binding the Column behind the altar and components of upper structure show the characteristics of the overall structure and influence the size of the lateral side of the hall. Therefore, understanding correlations among the altar location, methods of binding the Column behind the altar, and the size of the lateral side of the hall are very important in understanding the structural changes in Buddhist architecture in general, as such correlations represented the most important motivation for change during the Chosun Dynasty.
This study aims to clarify the formation and transformation of Japanese migrant fishing village colonies in Korea. The subjects for this study include the port settlements of Jangseungpo and Guryongpo in Korea. The findings from this study can be summarized as follows. The spatial form of Japanese migrant fishing village colonies was basically formed on the road system based on lanes perpendicular to coastal roads parallel with coastal curve lines in a type of round bay. This road system became the foundation to form the pattern of lots into a trapezoidal shape for the inside of a house. The existing Japanese style houses can be divided into those that functioned exclusively as residences and those as shop houses. They were constructed with their inner space based on a module of 3.6m (12 Korean Cheok). Features resulting from enlarging or rebuilding by Koreans after their liberation can be divided into three categories such as the expansion of a residential space to the back of a site, change of an existing store to residential use, and the integration and segmentation of individual rooms. Especially, the integration and segmentation of rooms can be said to represent the most important element related to the transformation of the life of Koreans with their different lifestyles. In addition, the segmentation of rooms is thought to be a characteristic of the remodeling of tatami rooms as the living space in a Japanese style house into Ondol rooms as the lifestyle for Koreans.
The study of more effective methods in terms of environmental cognition to assist visually impaired people in moving about in a space is the primary objective concerning the accessibility of disabled people. Mobility aids supplemented by hearing and echo-location cues have proven to be the most difficult concerning the improvement of mobility in finding a safe path through the immediate environment. How to develop facilities without auditory aids and carriers and to overcome the functional limitation of a single component for blind pedestrians is a necessary issue. A school with continuous space and a simple route and an office composed of open space and a complex route were selected as examples. The procedure of the experiment consisted of four phases; first, wayfinding was processed to evaluate the original environment; second, a tactile map was located at the start of the route; third, handrails were added along the test route, and finally, door signs were placed on doors. Fifteen visually impaired persons were selected for each phase. The results showed that both the tactile map and handrails with Braille landmarks were more effective in regard to wayfinding than were door signs. Handrails and door signs improved upon the limitations of a tactile map, raised the accuracy ratio of wayfinding close to 100%, and were more effective in a complex environment than in a simple environment.
Today, interactive architecture plays an increasingly important role in urban milieus. However, in terms of design principles and guidelines in the age of digital architecture, the design and construction of interactive skins has been under-explored. A new design approach to integrate interactive skins and architecture is needed. Certainly skins with interactive and kinetic properties need to be designed and constructed with a new approach for physical and content integration, instead of the traditional design approach. Thus, the ultimate objective of this study is to formulate a suitable design method in order to integrate kinesis with a building. Furthermore, this research aims to establish effective tectonics for interactive skins through the exploration of different state-of-the-art interactive skins. For this study, according to essential design factors that come from the definition of interactive architecture, such as interaction, display, and content, interactive skins are classified in order to build up controllable, available design parameters of interactive skins. This study also proposes designing an effective tectonic model for the integration of kinesis with a building through in-depth case studies. Moreover, in order to prove the viability of these proposed models, this research provides a prototype of a multi-agent-based interactive skin system using Delta robot kinematics, by which designers can quickly design and effectively simulate feasible interactive skins.
The effects of urbanization on the local climate in Kanto in August 2006 were analyzed, focusing on the statistical analysis of the warmest days of this period in Tokyo. By utilizing the Weather Research and Forecasting mesoscale model (WRF), there were 8 events of sultry nights found in the simulation, when the temperature did not decrease below 25°C from late afternoon to the next morning in the WRF default; however, the number of events increased to 11 with the incorporation of anthropogenic energy (AE) and to 14 using the urban canopy model (UCM). The incorporation of AE and UCM augmented the ensemble air temperature by 0.5°C and 0.9°C, respectively, during the analysis period. Simultaneously, AE and UCM improved the accuracy of nighttime predictions, although these parameterizations tended to overestimate the real temperatures in the afternoon by up to 0.9°C. Moreover, urban parameterizations may greatly divert the wind direction, which may subsequently diminish the mixing ratio and enhance the air temperature.
The purpose of this study is to develop a parametric cost estimating model for the early design stage using the OLAP (On-line Analytical Processing; Multi-dimensional Query System) based on quantity case data related to architectural design features. The OLAP system defines architectural design features as parameters that are factors for change in volume of quantity, and these can be used to query quantity information. The parametric estimating model can also evaluate the cost for various alternative designs by utilizing design features as the parameters. The parametric cost model is very highly accurate compared to existing cost estimation methods. The cost estimating process suggested in this study is divided into two stages. The first process involves measuring major quantities based on the design information level. The second process predicts minor quantities that can be used by the OLAP system. In the design development stage, the major quantity items are concrete and forms. The minor quantity items include the ratio of steel (rebar) that must be predicted. In this case study, the steel (rebar) ratio is predicted using the OLAP system in the design development stage.
With rising social interest in the quality of life and sustainable development in architecture, demands are growing for Hanok, traditional buildings of Korea, as a viable alternative to modernized architecture of Western origin. However, even as the so-called "New Hanok" — which updates the traditional structure with modern design — is gaining popularity among the general public, its design and construction are still a minor practice, in the sense that they rely on a small group of professional carpenters whose practice largely rests on their personal experience. Aiming to build an information system of Hanok that can contribute to the industrialization of its production, this research proposes a new design process for traditional architecture, utilizing a parametric design methodology. This process, based on the understanding of tectonic joints and spatial composition of our traditional architecture, defines a parametric relationship among the structural elements that compose Hanok. The research uses Gehry Technologies' Digital Project and Autodesk Revit Architecture — most useful commercial programs of parametric (and associate) design among today's CAD/CAE/CAM applications — to apply a concurrent parametric design methodology, approaching the project from both "bottom-up" (building initiated by the assembly of smallest elements) and "top-down" (building from partial modifications on a pre-determined whole), to present a new design process for Hanok elements.
This study clarifies how workers stay in a place and move differently in territorial and non-territorial workplaces by using the UWB (Ultra Wide Band-impulse radio) sensor network. The results are as follows. All the investigated workers spent approximately 80% of their time for staying in the working territory in each workplace. Workers in the non-territorial workplace stayed in the "own-seat nearby zone" 8.4% more than those in the territorial workplace; they stayed 11.6% less in the "meeting corner zone", but 1.4% more in the "workstation zone". The working territory space in the non-territorial workplace was used more efficiently than in the territorial workplace, as indicated by its 8.5% higher proprietary occupancy rate and 2.8% higher flexible occupancy rate at workstations, as well as its 6.9% higher occupancy rate in meeting corners. The different work characteristics in terms of worker's post or specialty were also revealed: architects spent approximately 4.5% more time in the "own-seat nearby zone" than engineers, while engineers visited the architects' specialty areas more often; compared with regular staff, the rate at which project leaders stayed out of their workplace was the highest, at over 17%; while the temporary staff stay in the "own-seat nearby zone" the longest.
This paper aims at the analysis of degradation of heritage by informal urbanization in Mekelle, Ethiopia. Due to rapid development and population growth, Mekelle has experienced great change in recent years and is now seriously menaced by this problem. Especially in the historical area of the central district, the situation is getting ever worse. In this study, careful observation and research was carried in the central district from both architectural and social point of view to understand this mechanism.
The key objective of this study is to develop an experimental computational method for mapping architectural space, and further validate the method using several case studies. The result will offer possibilities for quantitative design analysis, particularly on spatial quality influenced by architectural elements. Our proposed method for this computation consists of two phases: determination of L-shaped enclosed spaces and axial lines to establish an enclosed space relative to a circulation space, and determination of subdivided enclosed spaces using territorial lines. The concept underlying this method is that architectural space is composed of subdivided enclosed spaces each of which has distinct physical properties influenced by different elements. Therefore, it is possible to develop mapping for the further qualitative evaluation of architectural space.
This paper examines the "complexity" of space in Agoras by analyzing their architecture using image-processing technology. Agoras were central to the lives of Western European people and can be called the starting point of Western European civilization. Image processing technology was used to perform the initial restoration of the architecture and city shape. Each building in the 3D model of the plaza was then constructed, centering on the formation of the Agora. The box-counting method was used to determine the relationship between the shadow image and the fractal analysis of the 3D plaza composition. This was applied in the fractal analysis of the changes in the arrangement of the facilities from generation to collapse.
This study aimed at proposing a finite element model for predicting the initial rotational stiffness and plastic moment capacity of the Type A top and seat angle connection without double web angles. The main parameter of the 3D nonlinear finite element analysis was the bolt gage distance of the top angle. The finite element analysis resulted not only in the rotational stiffness and the plastic moment capacity, but also in the stress distribution and the plastic hinge location. The study verified the applicability of the finite element model by comparing the results of the finite element analysis with those of existing experimental studies.
While fire outbreaks in tunnels are not as frequent as those in other structures, temperature rises up to over 1,000ºC within 5 minutes upon the outbreak of a fire in a tunnel due to its semi-closed structure. Temperature rise in a concrete structure caused by a fire under constant load leads to deterioration in strength, accelerates deformation and finally results in collapse. In this study to identify structural damage caused by a fire in a tunnel, fire tests were conducted using a heating furnace that satisfied the KS F 2257-1 and EFNARC regulations to evaluate the thermal damage to a tunnel concrete lining. The two objects of the test were: 1) to identify the thermal damage to concrete lining associated with fire intensity 2) to evaluate the characteristics of spalling and failure of concrete lining associated with load ratio. The range of thermal damage under the ISO fire, heating rate of 1ºC/Sec., MHC fire3) and RWS fire3) was 30mm, 20mm, 100mm and 50mm, respectively. The depth of spalling in the RWS and MHC fires was 30mm. Spalling was observed under unstressed conditions, while it was not observed under 20 ~ 40% loads because of the smooth flow of vapors enabled by micro cracks. Under 70% load, the rapid spread of cracks caused failure during 10 minutes of heating.
Two design approaches, conventional and strut-and-tie procedures, are developed for reinforced concrete continuous deep girders which transmit the gravity load from the upper wall to the lower columns. This paper presents the results of tests and analyses conducted on two specimens; the first specimen employs the conventional procedure, while the strut-and-tie procedure is used for the second specimen. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The approach of the strut-and-tie method is valid for this type of continuous deep girder rather than the conventional beam approach. (2) Since the upper load is carried over directly to the supporting column through the stiff concrete strut to the point of yielding of the bottom ties, the shear capacity of continuous deep girders is mainly governed by the yielding forces of the bottom ties. (3) The additional shear resistance derives from continuity with the adjacent beams or walls. Shear and top reinforcements in the continuity region can be designed by using appropriate models for the additional margin of safety in terms of strength and ductility. (4) Simulation through two-dimensional nonlinear analyses using DIANA shows a good correlation with the experimental results.
In this paper, the authors present the concept of a progress management system that synchronizes the quality inspection process with integrated cost-schedule information in construction projects. In general, construction progress has been measured using subjective judgments by field managers or extensively processed cost data. A practical progress management system should be able to maintain and provide objective and reliable progress data on time without extra data processing. The quality inspection process can produce appropriate data for this purpose. However, in conventional construction management practices, progress measurement and quality inspection have been separated. In order to design and implement a system that synchronizes them, the available information that can be provided from current processes were identified and connected using the following steps: 1) analyzing the quality inspection process, 2) identifying the means for measuring progress, 3) determining identical elements in various schedules, and 4) linking quality inspection lots to the means for measuring progress. An on-line system was developed and applied to a nuclear power plant construction project in Korea. The results from operating it show that the conflicts in progress determination between clients and contractors were reduced, and the costs and time for administrative tasks involving the processing of progress management and quality inspection data were saved.
In order to avoid pancake-type collapse of existing old R/C buildings during severe earthquakes, it is necessary to evaluate the residual axial load capacities of the existing R/C columns. These "residual axial load capacity" is defined as the axial load carrying capacity of a column after the column suffers serious damage; it corresponds to the safety limit. The standard popularly used in Japan for the evaluation of seismic performances of existing R/C buildings includes evaluation methods for residual axial load capacities, which have dramatic effects on seismic performance indexes. The objectives of this study are to examine the residual axial load carrying capacities of R/C columns after shear failure. We have focused on the loading methods and the confining effects of hoop reinforcement depending on the reinforcing details of the columns.
Field tests were conducted on timber floors in three wood-framed buildings in order to obtain their dynamic characteristics and evaluate the vibration comfort. The measured fundamental vibration frequency, damping ratio and root-mean-square acceleration, were used to evaluate human comfort caused by timber floor vibration. The results show that the fundamental vibration period of the thirteen tested timber floors was between 9.96Hz and 18.70Hz, which is sufficiently outside the frequency range of human activities excitation to preclude the resonance of timber floors. The thirteen timber floors in the test program satisfied the vibration control standards when the vibration environments and duration were taken into consideration. The damping ratios of the timber floors show a strong amplitude dependence, with high damping ratios correlated with large vibration amplitude. The average value of the damping ratio obtained from the impulse load tests was 5.05%, which was suitable for timber floors under normal human activities. In practice, vibration should be considered during the design of large-span timber floors.
In Korea recently, interest is increasing in slim floor systems that have superior structural performance and fire resistance. This paper contains the results of tests to confirm the fire resistance behavior of the composite asymmetric slim floor beam. The fire resistance behavior was analyzed using the finite element program ANSYS and the finite element models were validated against the test results. The validated thermal and structural models were used to predict the fire resistance of the Korean asymmetric floor beam and the average temperature of the steel bottom flange depending on load ratio changes. As a result, the 346ASB and the 350ASB were found to have 60 minutes of fire resistance when their load ratios were under 0.47 and 0.48 respectively without additional fire protection. Also, the authors have set the average temperature of the bottom flange, which has a direct impact on the ASB system, as a limiting temperature that enables gauging of its fire resistance as a table according to the load ratio, and presented the limiting temperature as a regression equation according to the fire resistance time.
The shaking table test of a soil-structure interaction system under hard soil conditions (with an average shear wave velocity of more than 153 m/s) is briefly presented in this paper, and the soil dynamic characteristics, including the shear moduli and damping ratio, are identified using the acceleration results of the test. Based on the identification results of the soil, a three-dimensional finite element analysis of the shaking table test was conducted using the ANSYS program. The surface-to-surface contact element was taken into consideration for the nonlinearity of the interface state of the soil-pile, and an equivalent linear model was used for the soil behavior. By comparing the results of the finite element analysis with the data obtained from the shaking table test, a computational model was validated.
This paper presents a study on the ultimate capacity (maximum strength and plastic deformation capacity) of a thin–walled H–section beam. An experimental study is adopted by subjecting beams under cyclic loading to a large range of deformations with large depth–thickness ratios, which are over or close to the limit value of the current standards. The objectives of the present paper are to reveal the post local buckling behavior and to propose a handy method to evaluate the ultimate capacity. Instead of the commonly used parameter of width and depth–thickness ratio, the normalized thickness ratio WF developed in this study based on the author's previous studies can be regarded as the major parameter to evaluate the ultimate capacity. The relationship between WF and ultimate capacity is examined. The improved criteria for assessing the maximum strength and plastic deformation capacity of an H–section beam is proposed using normalized thickness ratio WF and is shown to be in good agreement with the experiment results.
There exists a strong relationship between the level of planning effort and overall project performance. Project stakeholders are concerned about various project objectives among which cost performance has long been regarded as one of the most crucial. Recognizing the lack of a systematic approach in assessing building project risk in association with cost performance prediction, this study identified 49 risk factors from various sources and quantified the relative impact of each factor. By normalizing these values, a Project Risk Score (PRS) has been developed for the purpose of predicting cost performance on a particular project. The 13 real case studies showed a statistically significant relationship between the PRS and cost performance. Predicting cost performance is not simple. Project managers must consider not only factors that are innate to the project, but also project-independent circumstances. This study provides straightforward guidance in assessing a particular project in order to recognize the level of cost performance before project execution. This risk-based performance prediction can improve early-stage project evaluation and enhances the possibility of achieving a sustainable business in a challenging environment.
With its rapid economic development Korea is faced with the problems of energy consumption and environmental destruction that are in need of urgent solutions. Since buildings account for 25% of Korea's total energy consumption they are the key target in the reduction of carbon dioxide, the principal culprit of global warming. This paper focused on the thoughtless energy waste in universities and researched the characteristics of campus buildings, surveying the energy consumption patterns identified in accordance with the number of users and the period of use. In addition, this paper also established an optimized limitation of future energy consumption by forecasting the trend of growing consumption after examining the kinds and quantities of energy installations being utilized in campus buildings.
Apartment buildings are the most common type of residential buildings in Korea, where hot water heating pipes are installed in the floor structures. An internal insulation system (IIS) has been applied to the outside walls of most Korean apartment buildings, so there are many cases in which the layer of insulation is disconnected by structural components at the wall-slab joints. These joints become thermal bridges where heat transfer increases. An external insulation and finish system (EIFS) is a possible solution to this problem. In this study, the surface temperature distributions of actual apartment buildings with an IIS and an EIFS were investigated with an infrared thermal imaging camera. Annual heat losses and gains through the wall-slab joints with an IIS and an EIFS were calculated by three-dimensional transient heat transfer simulations in which hot water heating was excluded and included, respectively, in order to evaluate not only the heating and cooling loads, but also the heating efficiency when the building is actually heated. The results show that the amount of heat transfer through the wall-slab joints with an IIS is considerable, even though additional insulation is installed under the slab, and the EIFS significantly reduces the heating and cooling loads and improves the heating efficiency.
The purpose of this study is to suggest a direction by which to develop environment-friendly school facilities. To achieve this, field measurements were conducted to evaluate indoor environmental conditions such as thermal, visual and indoor air quality in 15 schools. Additionally, environmental elements were also investigated and analyzed through teachers' questionnaires. According to the results of measurements, the thermal condition, minimum illuminance, CO, TBC and formaldehyde were satisfactory in most of the classrooms. However, CO2, PM10 and TVOCs exceeded the standards. As it was found that the indoor classroom environment significantly influences the academic achievement of students, a plan should be made for indoor noise isolation, comfortable thermal environment maintenance, and uniform light distribution. The environment-friendly architectural design elements applicable to school facilities were found to be: environmental studio, vegetable gardening, school forest, and landscape architecture elements, in this order.
The authors analyzed the water quality of five rivers in the Kaname River basin and correlated it with the sewerage system and land use. The development of a sewerage system and reduction in agricultural land were found to affect water quality. The water quality of all river basins improved with time, and the improvement was seen as a gradual reduction in the pollution loads from the unsewered population and agricultural land. Temporal variations in the water quality of each river could be used to characterize them in terms of the expansion of the sewerage system and decrease in agricultural land use. Multiple regression analysis revealed that, in most cases, the unsewered population had a greater impact on water quality; nevertheless, the change in agricultural land use also had some influence. Unlike total nitrogen (TN), chemical oxygen demand and total phosphorus exhibited good correlations with the pollution loads from the unsewered population and agricultural land. Atmospheric nitrogen (N) was presumed to impact the TN concentration in rivers. To maintain the water quality in the Kaname River basin, the development of a sewerage system could be a crucial factor; however, the contamination due to atmospheric N also needs to be considered.