Objectives This paper describes the diverse experiences in facility training and daily life of foreign nurse candidates who came to Japan under the Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA). Methods Data were collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews with 16 EPA nurse candidates from Indonesia and the Philippines between 2008 and 2010. Inductive data analysis was performed using the Modified Grounded Theory Approach (M-GTA). Results Two categories and 11 sub-categories were extracted regarding the working and training experiences of foreign nurse candidates in Japan. The analysis revealed that the candidates, who are registered nurses in their own countries, faced 《fluctuation in nurse identity》 during 〈Japanese nursing practice training〉 and while 〈comparing with practices in their countries〉 at host hospitals, not only because 〈the candidates are not eligible to work as nurses〉 but also because 〈the candidates are concerned about losing sufficient technical nursing skills〉. They were 〈motivated to complete training〉 but 〈faced difficulties in the new environment〉. They experienced 《difficulties in developing human relationships》 due to being 〈confused by the relationship with Japanese staff〉, as they 〈developed a trusting relationship with some staff〉 while also having to deal with 〈heartless attitudes from some Japanese staff〉. Moreover, they underwent a 〈long process to pass the national license examination〉 by counting on 〈individuals in charge of the EPA system〉. This study revealed diverse experiences of EPA nurse candidates and difficulties they faced, as well as their ways of overcoming hardships through personal networks. Conclusions EPA nurse candidates are required to make every effort to overcome these issues to develop their self-dignity as a nurse candidate in Japan. It is urgently required that host hospitals promote awareness among Japanese staff regarding the needs of EPA nurse candidates, and support them through difficulties in their day-to-day lives. Moreover, sustainable support systems aimed at grasping the difficulties in a thorough and timely manner should be developed for EPA nurse candidates.
Colombia faces difficulties in providing assistance to landmine victims as a result of long-drawn-out armed conflict against guerrilla groups and narco-traffickers. The present article describes recent trends and future challenges for landmine victim assistance in Colombia. Governmental, non-governmental, and international organizations as well as landmine victims’ groups are important actors for assisting landmine victims: Governmental organization modify laws, non-governmental organizations provide proper medical care, international organizations contribute financial and technical cooperation, and landmine victims’ groups build networks among landmine victims. However, various challenges remain. First, because most explosions occur in mountainous areas, victim access to medical care is difficult. Transferring landmine victims to a medical institution takes a lot of time. Second, as many people cannot go back to their landmine-polluted hometown, this internal displacement has led to problems regarding the resettlement of victims in landmine-free areas. It is not easy for them to participate in the new society. Finally, although many landmine victims suffer from psychological problems such as post-traumatic stress disorder, psychological care is often inadequate. The increase in the number of landmine victims in Colombia requires the establishment of an efficient landmine victim assistance system.
Purpose The purpose of this study was to elucidate the factors related to job satisfaction in nurses working in Health Centers (HC) in northern Thailand. Method A questionnaire composed of items on basic attributes, religion, the Self Efficacy Scale (SES), and the Job Satisfaction Scale (JSS) was distributed to 192 nurses working at HC in Phayao Province in northern Thailand. A total of 135 responses were received (response rate, 70%). Among the responses, data from seven male cases were excluded; therefore, data from 128 female cases were used for statistical analyses. Statistical significance was fixed at 5% for all tests. Result and Discussion A statistically significant correlation, r＝0.22 (p＝0.04), was found between the JSS score and daily frequency of meditation. A statistically significant difference was found (p<0.01) about the JSS score between “High or Medium” and “Low” answer groups to the question of salary. It was also found (p<0.01) about the JSS score between “Yes” and “No” answer groups to the question of change jobs. These results are almost identical to those previously reported in Japan. Regarding the reason for choosing to work at an HC, a statistically significant difference was found (p＝0.04) between “To help the people” and “No relation between job choice and religion”. It was thus thought that nurses might maintain high motivation and have high levels of job satisfaction if they have a desire to be helpful. Conclusion It should be pointed out that job changes and salary are related to the job satisfaction of nurses working in HC in northern Thailand, which has also been reported in Japan. Moreover, it is thought that religious activities, particularly meditation, must be related to job satisfaction.