A number of evidence suggest that the society with minimal health inequality has abundant Social Capital(SC) and SC is related to participation to microfinance, however, empirical studies on the association between health and SC are limited. This study aims to explore the features of SC for women who participate to microfinance in rural Burkina Faso, in order to discuss about response towards health inequality reduction.
Exploratory sequential design mixed method was adopted. Photo Voice was conducted with 11 women living in a village of A health district to explore social support functions that contribute to maternal and child health, and data were analyzed inductively. A survey was conducted for 563 women aged 20-45 years living in the rural villages of A health district with questionnaire developed by using qualitative study results, and descriptive statistics and groups comparison were performed.
Assistance with cash loan or transportation to clinic, information provision on the effects of family planning, and reporting members’ physical condition to their husband were extracted as SC functions for women in microfinance. Quantitative study elucidated that the proportion of membership of microfinance is only 14.4% and that quantity of social support was significantly greater in membership of microfinance, in particular financial support. Information support was not so exchanged contrary to qualitative research results. Exchange of social support was not limited between microfinance members but mainly with extended family.
SC through microfinance consisted of physical, information and emotional support, which reflected on the socio-economic status and health system in rural Burkina Faso. The member had a plentiful SC but exchange of SC was not limited among membership. In order to use the effectiveness of SC through microfinance for health inequality reduction, generalization of SC throughout community including non-membership should be considered.
Falsified or substandard antimicrobials present a health hazard to patients, and may promote antimicrobials resistance. We conducted a four-year study to evaluate the quality of selected antimicrobials and to examine the prevalence of falsified or substandard antimicrobials in Cambodia, aiming to promote efforts to improve the quality of medicines in Cambodia.
We collected samples of clarithromycin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime, levofloxacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, fluconazole, nalidixic acid, ofloxacin, phenoxymethyl penicillin and roxithromycin products from several different types of drug outlets in five provinces (rural areas) and Phnom Penh (an urban area), during 2011 to 2014. The authenticity of the collected medicines was investigated, and the medicines were analyzed to determine whether they met the appropriate pharmacopoeial standards.
We collected 647 samples, produced by 179 manufacturers, from 353 outlets. Only 51 (15%) of the outlets were air-conditioned. We found different-coloured packaging of the same brand (different lots) of products from some manufacturers. The insert information of one sample was different from the package information. Twelve (1.9%) samples were not officially registered with Department of Drug and Food (DDF). In authenticity investigation, 43 of 179 manufacturers replied and confirmed the authenticity of 154 samples (out of 647); also, 18 out of 40 Medicine Regulatory Authority (MRA) replied to enquiries about whether products were licensed or not (one was not). Among the samples, 424 (80.4%), 406 (86%) and 533 (90.6%) passed in dissolution, content uniformity and quantity tests, respectively. Samples of cefuroxime and roxithromycin that failed were significantly cheaper than those that passed.
Poor-quality antimicrobials were found in Cambodian markets, though no falsified medicines were detected. Result of samples were not confirmed in authenticity, so it was possible to include falsified medicines. Manufacturers should be encouraged to improve GMP implementation. Storage conditions in the distribution chain may also need to be improved. Continuous efforts by stakeholders are needed to ensure that medicines are properly licensed.
In Brunei Darussalam, obesity and diabetes mellitus are serious national health challenges, and there is an urgent, nationwide need to develop measures against these diseases. This project provides training in various efforts unique to Japan aimed at preventing lifestyle-related diseases mainly through specific medical check-ups and health guidance. The objective of this project is to form a basis for introducing a Japanese-style system in Brunei Darussalam.
In this training program, the Bruneian staff learned specific medical check-ups, strategies for applying the results of these check-ups, actual and detailed contents of the specific counselling guidance, and so forth. We can reasonably expect that implementation of these practices and the skills acquired in Brunei will enable the Bruneian staff to more effectively prevent and control diabetes and obesity.
Moreover, this project not only contributes to health promotion for Bruneian citizens, but can also be expected to have a spillover effect on neighboring Muslim countries with similar problems (e.g., Malaysia and Indonesia). The prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus is increasing globally in both developed and developing countries, and preventive measures are urgently needed worldwide. It seems that recognition and introduction of the efforts made in Japan are extremely meaningful and important for solving international issues.
Since the year 2003, National Center for Global health and Medicine (NCGM) has been implementing a JICA group training: ‘Continuum of Care for Quality Improvement of Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health in Francophone Africa’. During these ten years, we have recognized the difficulty for trainees to adopt their new knowledge and skills, into their own work because of social and cultural differences. To overcome this issue, we had introduced an approach: ‘laboratory method’ for experiential learning. In this method, participants work together in a group to learn through experiences-based analysis.
However, we have faced the gap between the ‘laboratory method’ and the whole contents of course. Trainees could not utilize ‘laboratory method’ as a useful tool to learn practical skills in the training. To solve this problem, in the year 2013, we added several new learning styles to make the ‘laboratory method’ more usable throughout the training period.
Method and Results
We utilized the ‘inception reports’, which all trainees had submitted to JICA before they came to Japan, as an important tool for the ‘laboratory method’. Trainees extracted their common theme from all reports in their group work. Moreover, they used one common ‘matrix’ to analyze their common agenda. Trainees recorded their learning on the ‘matrix’ and revised them if necessary after discussions in regular review meetings. This work helped trainees understand how to put the ‘laboratory method’ into their practice. They also recognized their colleagues and themselves as important ‘resources’ for learning by sharing their own experiences.
Participants in the group-training course could utilize the ‘laboratory method’ for their learning throughout the course by using a ‘matrix’ as a tool for analysis. The awareness that their colleagues and themselves could be valuable ‘resources’ could be a breakthrough for working after they went back to their countries.
This study assessed the level of malaria-related knowledge in Cameroonian mothers and identified the relationship between maternal knowledge and practice of preventive measures in their children.
The study was conducted from August through September 2014. The participants comprised 50 mothers who visited A Health Center for immunization of their biological children under the age of 5 years. They were interviewed using a questionnaire, which was developed by the authors, with a response rate of 100%. The questionnaire was composed of questions regarding maternal malaria-related knowledge, preventive measures for malaria in their children, sources of information on malaria, and attributes of the participants. Analysis of covariance was performed with the items on maternal malaria-related knowledge (four items) as independent variables and preventive measures for malaria in their children (one item) as a dependent variable. Attributes of the participants were entered as covariates in the analysis. Chi square test was conducted between the age of the mother, knowledge related to the causes of malaria, and the use of mosquito nets as a preventive measure against malaria for children.
Among the 50 participants, 40 (80.0%) knew “mosquito bite” as the cause of malaria, whereas 10 (20.0%) did not, and 39 (78.0%) cited “healthcare provider at a hospital or clinic” as the source of information on malaria, whereas 26 (52.0%) cited “television.”
Analysis of covariance, which was performed to elucidate the relationship between the four items on malaria-related knowledge and the one item on preventive measures for malaria in their children, showed significant differences in all combinations.
Chi square test was conducted between knowledge related to the causes of malaria and the use of mosquito nets as a preventive measure against malaria for children. The result was a significant trend.
This study demonstrated that mothers who had knowledge about the causes, symptoms, preventive measures, and financial burden of malaria took measures to prevent malaria in their children.
These findings suggested the importance of disseminating correct information on malaria, including its causes and the behavior of mosquitoes, for decreasing malarial morbidity and under-five mortality with appropriate preventive measures.
Whilst practical strategies and conceptual frameworks of community-based rehabilitation (CBR) and community-based inclusive development (CBID) are well-documented by stakeholders globally, the approaches and skills of social workers at the meso- and community-levels have likely been addressed inadequately. This article aims to explore the integration of developmental social work with CBR/CBID. Drawing on the theory and concepts of developmental social work that have an affinity with those of CBR/CBID, this paper argues that the integration is practically useful and feasible for social workers and other professionals in CBR/CBID at the grassroots level. In particular, social investment, a comprehensive and multi-sectoral approach, development of local resources, and capacity development are emphasised to realise human rights and to promote the socioeconomic equality of disabled people. Such an integration also suggests the importance of ethnic- and culture-sensitive practice and reflects on power relationships. Based on these practical approaches and perspectives, a case of social workers is analysed using published field practice documents in the national CBR programme in rural Sri Lanka. The findings suggest that developmental social work could address the vicious cycle of inadequate education, poverty, and marginalisation in order to promote inclusive socioeconomic development. Despite some limitations of the arguments, this study suggests that future research could examine the integration of developmental social work with CBR/CBID in other fields.