To explore factors related to difficulty in caring for foreign patients among Japanese nurses.
A self-administered online survey was conducted with nurses working in a university hospital and a general hospital in Tokyo using Google Forms. The survey involved participants’ demographics, including language ability and international experiences, and 16 questions on difficulty in caring for foreign patients.
A total of 138 nurses completed the survey (response rate of 11.3%). The average nursing experience was 14.1 (±10.6) years, and 50% of the participants had a bachelor’s degree. The higher-difficulty items were predominantly related to communication, followed by insurance or payment. The most difficult item was “communication in a language other than English,” but no factor was associated with it. The path analysis showed that “being able to speak a foreign language” was directly and significantly associated with a lower total difficulty score (β＝−0.313, p＝0.011). Higher educational degree was associated with higher “self-evaluated English level” (β＝0.282, p<0.001), which was associated with “being able to speak a foreign language” (β＝0.396, p<0.001). Higher educational degree was also associated with “international experiences (study)” (β＝0.161, p＝0.044), which was associated with both “self-evaluated English level” (β＝0.256, p<0.001) and “being able to speak a foreign language” (β＝0.286, p<0.001). Lower educational degree was associated with more nursing experience (β＝−0.454, p<0.001), which was associated with a higher “number of foreign patients cared for” (β＝0.291, p<0.001) but not with lower difficulty. Although “international experiences (sightseeing)” was highly correlated with “international experiences (study)” (β＝0.338, p<0.001), sightseeing was not significantly related to higher “self-evaluated English level” or lower difficulty.
Learning foreign languages, including English, and international study experiences could reduce difficulty in caring for foreign patients. An intervention study that evaluates the effect of training that includes a language aspect on caring for foreign patients may be necessary.
This study explored the association of residence, caste, social determinants of health (SDH) of parents, and daily junk food intake with the nutritional status of school children living in different residential areas of a district in Nepal.
A survey was conducted from December 2017 to March 2019, including 331 school children aged 6 to 12 years as well as their parents, in the primary village for Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) support and the surrounding area in the Machapuchare Administrative Region of Kaski District, Gandagi Province, Nepal.
In this study, the body mass index for age z-score (BMIZ), a criterion used by the WHO for assessing malnutrition, was used for determining underweight; BMIZ <−2 SD was defined as underweight.
The children’s anthropometric data were measured to assess their nutritional status, and a survey on children’s daily junk food intake and parents' SDH was conducted among parents. The responses were analyzed by logistic regression analysis.
Of the children who participated in the survey, 31 (9.4%) were underweight.
An association between parents’ SDH and children’s underweight was found after adjusting for mothers’ age at marriage, number of siblings, and daily junk food intake, and the results showed that lower caste (OR＝0.241, p＝0.001), lower education of mothers (OR＝3.879, p＝0.011) and non-literacy of fathers (OR＝2.790, p＝0.023) had statistically significant effects on BMIZ.
In this study, BMIZ, indicating underweight in Nepalese school children, was associated with higher caste and a mother’s level of educational attainment and father’s of non-literacy. To understand the factors influencing children’s health, it is necessary to evaluate sociodemographic parameters of parents as childcare providers, including culture, education, employment, living conditions, and diet, and to conduct surveys that capture data on the SDH of parents from various perspectives.
The Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak forced social events to be cancelled, and academic meetings were no exception. This has increased the need for online seminars (webinars), although, lack of knowledge or experience for hosting such events were prominent. We, “Kansai Global Health”, began preparing a series of webinars from March 2020 under the theme “COVID-19 and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)”. We hereby report our experience and tips on what hosts should bearing in mind for academic webinars.
Participants of Kansai Global Health were required to register prior to the webinar on Google Forms, where characteristics of the participants were subsequently obtained. Zoom software was used to create a YouTube livestreaming video for viewing. An online questionnaire was used to obtain feedback from the participants. Data analysis of the livestreaming was conducted with YouTube Analytics. The cumulative total of participants was 2083. Most were Japanese residents, but 69 participants registered from overseas such as Tunisia and Zambia. The majority of the participants were health professionals, with some non-health professionals and students. 85.7% of the participants rated the webinar satisfaction above four on a scale out of five. Comments from the participants were mostly positive, while some participants claimed some errors of the host members prior to and during the webinar.
The satisfaction of webinars consisted not only of the contents but also of the quality of the hosts. These accidents could be avoided, or kept under control, with thorough preparations and rehearsals of the hosts discussing possible protocols under such circumstances and making good use of communication tools such as message applications.
Adequate hosting techniques are essential for feasible discussions online. Global health webinars should improve hosting skills, as well as its contents, to create a future platform to conduct fruitful discussions.
The Sustainable Development Goals adopted at the 2015 United Nations Summit emphasized the importance of global partnerships for the realization of sustainable goals by 2030. The concept of “humanization of childbirth” was central idea of the international technical cooperation “Maternal and Child Health Improvement Project” that was successfully implemented in Brazil from 1996 to 2001. Further, this concept was introduced through relevant laws and legislations in other countries in Latin American countries. Under this umbrella, the current study was constituted to describe how the concept of humanization of childbirth has contributed to the development of relevant regulations, as well as to examine the regional expansion and sustainability of the concept in Latin American countries.
We searched the websites of governments and ministries of health in 20 Latin American countries for relevant laws and regulations and international technical cooperation projects in the field of maternal and child health. We particularly searched for legislations and projects which employed phrases such as “humanization of childbirth” and “humanized care.” Further, we analyzed laws and regulations in these countries to understand how the humanization of childbirth was perceived.
By 2018, 16 countries had passed laws and regulations regarding the humanization of childbirth and four have implemented international technical cooperation projects. Five among them passed laws which focusing on the humanization of childbirth itself and incorporated the concept into the comprehensive care.
Following the implementation of the project in Brazil, the concept was legalized throughout Latin America. The humanization of childbirth concept aimed to guarantee respect toward and dignity of all human beings. Finally, the development of each legal provision with the intention of incorporating the idea of humanization of childbirth into the comprehensive care services offered by the maternal and child health sector has improved the concept’s sustainability.