In the United Kingdom, after publication of governmental "White Paper" in 2002, Blair government aimed to establish new organization i.e., "region" that is positioned between central and local governments, and put into practice as regionalism in England. However, the establishment of its organization requires an approval by a referendum, but the first voting step of the referendum in the North East met a majority vote of opposition, and it was not approved. Since then, there has been no movement for the referendum in any other regions. There for, this issue has been actually frozen. There are various problems concerning regionalism in England. For example, the regions in England have a weaker competence and a vague character in comparison with Scotland, and so forth. Then, there is an another choice of regionalism in England. That is to say, England has an original parliamental system like Scotland Parliament. But this choice has another problem of relationship between this Parliament and the Westminster Parliament. Inspite of these circumstances, devolution and regionalism in the United Kingdom are providing our country with an useful information. This article examines regionalism in England, and it would be useful for the "dou-syu" system that is a crucial issue of local autonomy in our country.
In den letzten Jahren wird in der japanischen Rechtswischenschaft mehr und mehr die Bedeutung des Strafrahmens bei der Strafzumessung diskutiert. Dabei stehen folgende Punkte im Mittelpunkt: Erstens, die am 1.1.2005 in Kraft getrete Strafrechtsarderung, die die Ober- und Untergrenze des Strafrahmens zum Beispiel bei Totungs-und Sittlichensdelikten erhoht hat. Zweitens, die Strafzumessung bei Verkehrsdelikten, wobei es hier haufig die Kritik gibt, dass der Grad der Strafzumessung bei schweren Verkehrsdelikten nicht ausreichend sei. Deshalb hat der Gesetzgeber in 2001 das Strassenverkehrsgefahrdungsdelikt, das Tod und Korperverletzung an eine schwere Strafe knupft, neu geschaffen. Drittens hat das am 10.7.2003 gefallte Urteil des obersten japanischen Gerichtshofs im sogenannten "Madchen-Freiheitsberaubungsfall in Nigata" die Theorie der Einheitstrafe zur Gesamtstrafe vertreten. Dieses Urteil stellt jedoch nach Meinung vieler Fachleute einen Verstoss gegen nulla poena sine lage dar. Denn es ist fraglich, ob der Gerichtshof die StrZ-Tatsache der Freiheitsberaubung in der des Diebstahls im Umfang der Einheitstrafe berucksichtigen soll. Vor diesem Hintergrund stellen sich folgende Fragen: Was ist die eigentliche Bedeutung des Strafrahmens? Was sollte seine Funktion bei der Strafzumessung sein? In der gegenwartigen Diskussion in Japan betreffend der Strafzumessung ist die Theorie massgebend, nach der der Richter innerhalb des Strafrahmens nach seinem Straftaxensystem, das als eine faktische Norm bei der Strafzumessung gilt, ohne gesetzliche Bindung die Strafhohe bestimmen kann. Ich habe jedoch bedenken, ob diese Theorie strafrechtsdogmatisch richtig ist. Deshalb mochte ich in der vorliegenden Arbeit Bruns' Auffassung darlegen, fur die das folgende Zitat representativ ist: "Die Hauptbedeutung des Strafrahmens besteht namlich nicht mehr, wie man fruher glaubte, in der Grenzziehung nach oben und unten, also in der Fixierung von Hochst- und Mindeststrafen, sondern in einer neuen Perspektive, in der zusatzlichen Normierung einer gleichsam unsichtbaren Schwerskala aller moglichen Falle." Ich denke, damit macht Bruns die theoretische Bedeutung des Strafrahmens bei Strafzumessung deutlich.
Tokyo Metropolitan Government announced a result of research on the actual condition of the child abuse in 2005. The various factors of the parents and the family exist in the background of the child abuse. The parents of the mental disorder and parents with the unbalanced personality exceed 50%. Many families are isolated from the society, and there are many poor families. The investigation of Tokyo Metropolitan Government shows that it is the most effective child abuse prevention countermeasure to help the family by the welfare policy. It is necessary to provide a new law for the protection of child life from a serious child abuse. Main contents are as follows. 1 The parental authority clauses of the Civil Law cause the people to misunderstand. We should revise it in accordance with the ideology of the parents' duty. 2 We must set up a guardianship system regarding the nonage guardianship which is founded by the public institution. 3 The family court should order the temporary protection which is provided in the Child Welfare Law. The family court should order the compulsory admittance investigation which is provided in the Child Abuse Prevention Law and the approach injunction as well. 4 The child consultation office exercises its duties together with the court and the police offices. It plays three roles by itself. We should specialize the child consultation office for the social work organization. 5 The number of social workers for the child consultation office is limited. The number of social workers in Japan is less than that of Germany or France, which indicates one out of ten. We must increase the number of social workers as soon as possible.
The Gender-based persecution is to inflict a mental and physical distress to someone because of a gender-based violence and harm to his/her life. It includes sexual violence, domestic violence, female genital mutilation, forced family-planning, discrimination against homosexuals, etc. Since mid-1990s, UN and western countries like Canada have taken up gender-based persecution as one reason to become a refugee. UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees) appealed to the member nations to considerably review refugee claimants fearing the gender-based persecution through the interpretation of "membership of a particular social group" which is one of the refugee recognition reasons. In response to this, the "Guideline on Women Refugee Claimants Fearing Gender-Related Persecution" wes issued by the Canadian Immigration and Refugee Board (IRB) in 1993. And other 5 countries (United States, Australia, England, South Africa, and Sweden) issued their guidelines related with the gender-based persecution. In Japan, reflecting with severe refugee recognition system, each gender-related case was rejected. Judges regarded "persecution" as private issue and no-applicable to refugee protection. Comparing with Japan, Canada has actively recognized claimants fearing the gender-related persecution. Canada has implemented a gender-sensitive refugee protection through a flexible interpretation of the term, "membership of a particular social group". Canada seems to collect an adequate information to judge the gender-related persecutions, and has a strong human-rights awareness. Japan, comparing with other industrialized countries, has a poor under-standing of the gender-sensitive protection. However, Japan needs to consider the possibility of application of this concept for achievement of non-discrimination refugee recognition system in Japan.
The primary concern of this paper is to clarify circumstances of the removal of the temple (the Kousen temple) in Kagoshima Prefecture during the Meiji era. There is also a consideration of the relationship between "Kushi nijuhachinichikou" and the Syoukou temple as well as the Kousen temple. This article is targeted at those who are interested in the history of "buraku (discriminated communities)" and Shin Buddhism. The main findings of this research are as follows: 1. The Kousen temple was an important status of the Nishi Hongan Temple group in the modern times. But, it atrophied economically, because it lost a control-subordinate relationship, and it carried out the generalize role of the the discriminated villages. 2. "Kushinijuhachinichikou" of Satsuma and the Syoukou Temple of Kyoto had a relationship in the middle of the 18th century. 3. The Kousen temple was related to the Syoukou temple. Therefore, the Kousen Temple took over "Kushinijuhachinichikou" from the Syoukou temple and it moved to Kagoshima in the Meiji era.
In Japan, the restructure of basic social welfare system has been pursued since the latter half of 1990s. As the ideal of those reforms, users' self-determination and freedom of choice have been emphasized. It has been introduced "private contract system" between user and provider in social welfare system in Japan, as a substitute for the traditional administrative-determination based welfare system. In Sweden, on the other hand, Social Service Law (SoL, SFS 1980:620), which was enacted in 1980 because of critics toward the old social welfare laws, introduces several new principles in social service area. One of those basic principles is the principle of users' self-determination. Different from ones in Japan, social services are still provided on the basis of administrative decisions in Sweden. This paper focuses on the principles of users' self determination and the freedom of choice in Social Service Law (SoL) in Sweden, and compares with those ideals in Japanese new social welfare laws. From a comparative analysis, following points can be pointed out as differences. 1) Legal characters: "principle" in legally meaning in SoL. 2) Contents of those principles: abundant meanings included in SoL. 3) Public responsibility: necessary precondition for these principle in Sweden. 4) Relation with "right to social service" ; in SoL, the principle of self determination is also based on right to social service, which cannot be restricted by shortage of resources.
1. Anfangs 2. Tatsachenkontext 3. Entscheidungen 4. Untersuchung (1) Besonderheit des Wasserunternehmens (2) Inwieweit kann die "Zuschlagsgebuhr" zugelassen werden? Gibt es der prufungsmassstab? (3) Justizprufung zur "Gemeindeverordnung" (4) Eigentliche Aufgabe der Justizprufung 5. Schlusswort
After the bus hijack in Nagasaki and the stabbing incident at Osaka Ikeda Elementary School have drown attention of the society, the Japanese government has made a series of discussions on legal and administrative responses, and legislative preparations as well. Meanwhile, a man who was attending in the clinic for mentally disorders committed a crime in Yao, Osaka; he caught an innocent boy on the skywalk and dropped the boy from 6-meter above the ground. The boy had a serious damage on the skull. If this perpetrator be dropped by based on Article 39 of the Criminal Law, he will then be treated as one of the objects of 'medical observation method'. Now it is challenged how to treat such an individual with mental disorders, while fully considering sentiment of victims. Legislative and administrative preparations concerning mentally-disabled people need to be further developed in Japan. In this circumstance, a special attention should be paid to how appropriate treatment is given to people with mental disorders, for example, how judiciary in charge would reach a verdict in collaboration with psychiatric judges. Referring to some cases in France, this study focuses on some problems of discharge procedures and seeks for solutions from the perspective of "due process". A Study of admission procedure is forthcoming in another paper.
Due to incessant changes in social conditions-in particular, with rapid changes of population structure-it is now increasingly important that elderly people themselves try to display empowerment ability and seek a life worth living. In the past, with the aim of solving the problems caused by the increasing number of elderly people, Japan has been learning much from the countries in Europe and America. In future, however, it will be essential to cope with these problems through learning and information exchange with Taiwan and South Korea, where the number of elderly people is rapidly increasing. We have, therefore, attempted to elucidate the problems caused by the increase of the elderly population in Japan through a detailed analysis of the situation in the post-war period at Ai-Ai-Yuan, a privately managed welfare institution in Taipei (formerly called Ai-Ai Dormitory), which was first established during the period of Japanese colonization. Throughout the study, we have tried to find an effective approach for intervention to enrich the empowerment ability of elderly people in Japan.
The purpose of this paper is to distinguish "limited liberalism" which has the political notion that the political conception or principle of justice is established independently of comprehensive doctrines or one's own good as self-determined value from "comprehensive liberalism" which has the political thought that the political conception or principle of justice is formed based on the logic or the substance of the comprehensive doctrines or the cultural identity. By doing this I maintain that the latter rawlsian liberalism contains both limited liberalism and comprehensive liberalism which are incompatible with each other. And as a whole I indicate that a mixture of two kinds of liberalism is also inherent in the former rawlsian liberalism. This demonstration makes the general view that Rawls is a covert who abandons the former rawlsian liberalism and adopts the latter rawlsian liberalism cause a misunderstanding. Firstly I emphasize an ingenious idea of Rawls's own which distinguishes the essential definition of justice from the substance of justice differently from the others who construct the theory of classical social contract. Secondly, however, on the other hand, I indicate that the essential definition of justice is diluted and that the logic of the substance of justice is emphasized by using the theoretical device of reflective equilibrium. Thirdly I dinstiguish the reasonable pluralism from the pluralism. I demonstrate that the reasonable pluralism as a normative conception can be realized after the latter that the comprehensive doctrines is incompatible with one another is relieved. And I maintain that this resolution also contains both limited liberalism and comprehensive liberalism and that in this point the former rawlsian liberalism is identical with the latter rawlsian liberalism.