Cooling technology becomes more important by the increase of heat generation density from semiconductors densely integrated. Boiling two-phase flow is one of the effective methods because of its high heat removal ability. When two-phase flow is used under microgravity conditions, it gives valuable information to clarify the effect of gravitational direction on ground. The cooling system by using flow boiling in fin spacing narrow channels is developed for practical application of large area cooling under high heat flux conditions. The cooling system realizes the increase in critical heat flux by an enlarged heating area of fin structures and increase in heat transfer coefficient by the evaporation of thin liquid film underneath sliding bubbles generated between fins. To evaluate the cooling performance, flow boiling experiments are conducted by using water under low pressure conditions. A narrow channel with heating length of 100mm and with fin geometries of thickness 1mm, height 10mm and gap size 2mm is employed. Its nominal heating area without fins is 30mm×100mm. To understand the effect of gravitational direction, channel inclination angle is varied to test the upward flow for upward-facing and downward-facing heating surfaces. Key Words: Flow boiling, Narrow channel, Heat transfer, Gravity, Orientation
Sculptors in the 20th century began their creation of sculptures with the challenge to release their art objects from weight and gravity, as it can be seen in the floating sculptures performed by Moholy-Nagy and Calder. 50 years after, these art experiments have been developed into the new art called ``0G Art (Zero Gravity Art)''. The present author commenced a joint study with JAXA, of the possibilities of Space Art in 2001 and has participated in the pilot mission of utilization of culture, humanities and social sciences, using ISS-JEM (International Space Station-Japanese Experiment Module) called ``KIBO''. Two of his art experimental projects titled ``Marbling Painting on a Sphere of Water'' and ``Spiral Top'' were conducted under this mission in 2008 and 2009.This thesis focuses upon the novelty of these two art experiments which applied dynamic efficacy, together with the issues and it also considers the possibilities of future ``0G Art''.
Space technology has not been so popular in the general Japanese industries, and players would be limited to the governmental agencies and several aerospace companies. To popularize and promote utilization of the space technology, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is trying to invite new ideas or technology from non-aerospace field. One of the measures is ``Space Open Lab'' system operated by the Industrial Collaboration and Coordination Center of JAXA.
JAXA has been conducting various space experiments aiming application for industries productions onboard ISS. Several Spin-off technologies have been created by researchers and engineers concerned space experiments projects, such as protein crystalization, 2Dimensional Nanotemplate, Nanoskelton, and 3Dimentional Photonic Crystal. Spin-off technologies are effective for bridging between society and space development. In the near future, beyond Spin off technorogies, we must solve the issues on new intrinsic bridging method aiming the creation of industrial products useful for society through using Kibo.
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has launched ``High Quality Protein Crystal Growth'' (JAXA PCG) experiments using Protein Crystallization Research Facility (PCRF) in Japanese Experiment Module 'Kibo' (JEM) in the International Space Station (ISS) since July, 2009. In the course of JAXA (NASDA)-GCF and JAXA-NGCF from 2003 to 2008, we experienced more than 300 protein crystallization experiments in microgravity, and developed techniques to make the best use of microgravity environment for obtaining high-quality protein crystals. In this report, we introduce some of these techniques which can be applied to the crystallization experiment on the ground, and some crystallization results which are expected to contribute to the social demand.
There are three types of spin off technology which relate to the JAXA's protein crystallization projects in space, in these last 15 years. The first type is to obtain a patent on the crystallization device, 'gel-tube' and 'MicroChip', which has been designed for the space experiments but which can also be useful for the terrestrial crystallization in usual laboratory. The second type is to accumulate some know-how for the protein crystallization which is definitely useful for the terrestrial crystallization. The third one is to accumulate some know-how not for the crystallization but for the structure analysis, including sample preparation, diffraction data collection and the method for structure modeling, etc. As a result, it can be said that, to obtain more excellent results from space grown crystals, not only the crystallization process in space but also the whole technology for the protein structure analysis has been improved during JAXA's project. These technologies are contributed to the progress of the terrestrial protein crystallography and structure determination.
Japan Manned Space Systems Corporation (JAMSS) is the integrator of Japanese experiment module ``Kibo'' operations and utilization. The construction of ``Kibo'' was started in March 2008 and completed in last June. JAMSS has been trying to develop space utilization business since 2000. Space business using manned resources has not established yet. However, there are some success stories of the space utilization business in trial. This paper introduces possible approach to the space business, findings and our future plan based on the experiences.