The microgravity environment in the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) is measured using the Microgravity Measurement Apparatus (MMA), which JAXA has developed. Since the first measurement in JEM in August 2008, many data has been acquired, and analyzed. This paper introduce the JAXA activities of the microgravity environment measurement and analysis in JEM.
The Japanese Experiment Module “KIBO” in the International Space Station (ISS) is a manned laboratory in space. To maintain the habitable environment, various equipments are running. Some equipments generates vibration, and it is propagated throughout the ISS. In addition, the human generates vibration in broad frequency band. The characteristics of each vibration has distinctive structure, and the time occurred each vibration is predictable. Since the microgravity is one of the most important parameter for space experiment, understanding the characteristics accurately is very important to plan the experiment
The Japanese have measured microgravity environment in International Space Station (ISS) / Japanese experiment module (JEM) . The measurement data show various disturbances due to crew activities, experimental equipments and Vehicles. Disturbance of vehicle is very strong. And these roll the whole of ISS. This thesis focuses on disturbance of vehicle.
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has completed the construction of Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) or “KIBO”, i.e. the nickname of JEM, on orbit till 2009 after three times STS flights. The Exposed Facility of JEM (JEM-EF) is one of the most characteristic accommodations on ISS to provide an environment directly exposed to the outer space. JEMEF is expected to be suitable for experimental missions of a wide variety of field such as earth and space sciences and technological development. In this paper, JEM-EF and its payload are outlined, the interface between them and some significant constraints which must be taken into consideration on using JEM-EF are also discussed. Four missions now on JEM-EF and two being prepared for next utilization stage are introduced. I close this paper by the discussion of the strategies to make JEM-EF utilization be wider and more fruitful.
Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) started operation as an X-ray all-sky monitor on the Japanese Experiment Module ‘Kibo’ Exposed Facility of the International Space Station in August, 2009. MAXI continuously monitors the X-ray variability once every about 90 minutes for 1000 X-ray sources covering the entire sky on time scales from a day to a few months over a broad energy band (0.5 – 30 keV). We report the overview of MAXI mission and scientific highlights of MAXI in its first 1 year.
SSC (Solid-state Slit Camera) is an X-ray CCD camera onboard the MAXI mission. SSC covers the energy range of 0.5-12 keV with the energy resolution of 145 eV(FWHM) for 5.9 keV X-rays. SSC has been working well in the ISS orbit as expected. The all-sly image obtained with SSC shows many X-ray objects with various colors.
This report presents an introduction to loop heat pipes (LHP). Fundamental characteristics of LHP are described in comparison with conventional heat pipes. Following a brief explanation of the operating principle of LHP, the focus is placed on a unique implementation of LHP, the MAXI loop heat pipe radiator system (LHPRS). Since August 2009, LHPRS is working as the heat transporting system to reject heat from the X-ray CCD camera (SSC) of Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) onboard the International Space Station. LHPRS has two separate radiators operating under transient thermal conditions. A brief examination of the flight data shows no performance degradation of LHPRS. The importance of subcooling is stressed for understanding the working principle of the startup and shut-off heaters of LHPRS. This report may be useful for potential LHP users.
The Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES) has been doing observations in the Earth’s atmosphere from the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) since October 12, 2009 with the aid of 4-K mechanical cooler and super-conductive mixer for the submillimeter limb-emission sounding. The outline of SMILES instrument and its operation on board are introduced.
Early comparison of ozone (O3), HCl, and HNO3 Level-2 products of the Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave LimbEmission Sounder (SMILES) onboard International Space Station has been conducted. Good agreements are observed among SMILES, Scisat-1/ACE-FTS, EOS-Aura/MLS, and ENVISAT/MIPAS, for O3 and HCl below 45 km. SMILES HNO3 profiles are statistically around 20% higher than ACE-FTS and MIPAS. At higher altitude region, 45-60 km, SMILES O3 and HCl are considerably different from ACE-FTS and/or MLS. It is concluded, although future data updates will be necessary, SMILES O3 and HCl below 45 km are both useful for scientific application with special cautions to the SMILES data quality.