Microgravity combustion experiment ``PHOENIX'' was successfully performed by the flight of TEXUS46, launched on Nov. 22, 2009. The flight experiment had been prepared and executed as a cooperation project between JAXA and ESA since 2006.The Droplet Array Combustion Unit (DCU), which was developed by JAXA, was on board in the TEXUS46 to perform combustion experiment of fuel droplet array. In this paper, the latest progress on this project, including final preparation of experimental apparatus, launch site operation as well as summary of the flight experiment is reported.
International collaboration on complex plasmas research is described. Our collaboration partners are mainly Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) in Germany and Joint Institute for High Temperatures (JIHT), Russian Academy of Sciences in Russia. The current target of this collaboration is to approach the critical point in charged systems based on the Totsuji model using an apparatus on orbit named PK-3 Plus, though the research agreement of this collaboration covers much wider research fields. The historical development of this collaboration and our future plans are also described in this paper.
The development of cast, welding and crystal growth processes have been achieved through solidification processing from the melt on earth and in space in order to improve these processing. Ultimately, a reliable database of thermophysical properties of liquid metals and alloys over a wide range of temperatures will be established, including the following properties needed for numerical simulations and improvement of these processing quality for new and advanced materials: ●density―using video observation techniques in the coil's axial and radial directions ●thermal expansion―also from video observation ●viscosity―using the oscillating drop technique ●surface tension―also by drop oscillation ●total hemispherical emissivity―using modulation calorimetry and measurement of external relaxation times ●specific heat―also by modulation calorimetry ●electrical conductivity―using inductive methods to measure the impedance of a pick-up coil surrounding the sample ●thermal conductivity―using the Wiedemann-Franz law that relates the electrical and thermal conductivity ●alloy melting range and fraction solid―using modulation calorimetry In order to achieve these goals on a reliable basis sophisticated computer models have been recently favored. On this basis JAXA and ESA together with national space agencies in Europe has set up a strong scientific collaboration programme to utilise space as a complementary crucial tool to ease and accelerate the development of new products through knowledge-based designs using the timely fundamental advances acquired from in the near future, the International Space Station. This article introduces the task and future plan of this international collaboration projects.
Protein crystal growth experiment in space has been performed for more than 20 years. Although microgravity was expected to affect crystallization process to crystals of better quality, it could not meet the expectation of the contribution to structural biology. JAXA has conducted the High-quality Protein Crystal Growth Experiment project on International Space Station since 2002. In this project, international cooperation with Federal Space Agency of Russia and European Space Agency is an important key factor for success of the experiment. We introduce this unique project and details of international cooperation.
The purpose of the Japan-US Science, Technology and Space Application Program (JUSTSAP) is to share information and achieve mutually beneficial interest and opportunities for specific collaboration in advanced science and technology, mainly in space exploration. The JUSTSAP established in 1990 have formerly consisted of working groups such as disaster observation, satellite communications, small satellites, space environment utilization, space power, space robotics and space policy, where individuals from industries, governments and academia have exchanged ideas and thoughts frankly under a strong support of Hawaii State. The working group of space environment utilization has previously promoted micro-gravity experiments on board the flights of the Space Shuttles; ``Japan-US Thermal Science Acceleration Project'' on STS-95, ``Japan-US Space Protein'' and ``JUSTSAP Space Technology and Research Students'' on STS-107. From 2006, the activities of space environment utilization working group have been expanded in two project teams of the ISS commercialization and the ``Pacific International Space Center for Exploration Systems'' which supports space exploration by simulating as closely as possible a future lunar or Martian settlement.
The authors are preparing a space experiment with an Indian recoverable satellite, ``SRE-II'' (Space Capsule Recovery Experiment-II). The project, named as ``JIMBE'' (Japan-India Microbe Cultivation Experiment), organized by Japanese and Indian researchers and engineers, cultivate microbes on orbit to estimate how the microbes react to the space environment. This is the first Japan-India joint space experiment and was started from developing a framework of the cooperation. The flight models have been already fabricated and successfully passed all the acceptance tests and are waiting for shipping to India toward the launch scheduled in 2011. This article introduces the current status of the Indian space program, which the authors have learned through the cooperation, as well as the project ``JIMBE''.
The author has taken part in several in international research projects. Because of their internationality, the author faced some diffi culties. In the paper, wandering of the author in such diffi culties will be briefly introduced