Acquisition of car embodiment is important for driving. In this research, eighty experimental participants were asked to drive an experimental car and to approach to an object in front of them. Four experimental conditions, differently restricted visual information, were prepared. The approach distances between the object in front and the experiment car, which were almost actual vehicle sized, were measured and the sensory evaluations about car embodiment were scored. The result showed that it is important to look around the vehicle before driving and to memorize the size and shape as previous visual information, and at that time information from peripheral vision is indispensable.
It is important to keep an appropriate distance from other vehicles when driving. In recent years, tailgating has become a social problem. It was hypothesized that being approached by other vehicles makes drivers feel strong pressure and then people feel it as tailgating. The purpose is to reveal the amount of their personal space between vehicles during driving and the sense of distance by comparing the inferred distance with the measured distance. This experiment was conducted based on 4 factors: the sizes of the vehicle （small/large）, approaching methods （approaching the stopped front vehicle/being approached from the rear vehicle）, measurement conditions （an inferred distance/an actual distance）, and gender. The results are as follows. Drivers showed their personal space larger when being approached than when approaching the vehicle ahead. Furthermore, the bigger the size of the vehicle in front and behind was, the larger the space they need. In addition, there was a significant tendency for gender. The inferred distance between the vehicles is closer than the measured distance. It was revealed that the personal space between vehicles were effected by the direction of approaching and the size of vehicle, and they felt closer than the actual distance between vehicles in some conditions.
Older drivers view themselves as having better driving skills and attitudes towards driving compared to when they were younger and compared to other drivers. Accidents involving older drivers suggest a strong link to overconfidence. The education program “Mirroring Method” was developed in Finland for improving self-evaluation ability. The aim of this research was to confirm the educational effects of the “Mirroring Method” among older drivers. 404 participants over 75 years of age were trained using this education program on the occasion of their drivers’ license renewal. During the education program, participants were twice required to evaluate their own driving safety at T-type intersections with no signs and poor visibility using a 100-point scale, once before and once after observing other drivers’ behavior recorded on videotape. After the education session, participants were asked to drive cars, and the trainers evaluated their safety. The self-evaluation ability was defined as the difference between self-evaluation and trainers’ evaluation. Findings suggest that the mildly demented participants showed no changes before and after education in regard to self-evaluation ability. However, normal participants showed improved self-evaluation ability.
This study aims to identify factors determining helmet-wearing when riding a bicycle. A questionnaire regarding bicycle riding, traffic behavior, daily behavior and helmet-wearing was conducted, with respondents being 469 elementary and junior high school students. Factor analyses extracted factors of “traffic safety” and “risk avoidance” from bicycle driving behaviors, “norm” and “fashion” from daily behaviors, and “active affirmation of helmet wearing” and “passive affirmation of helmet wearing” from helmet wearing attitudes. There was significant moderate correlation between the factor of active affirmation of helmet wearing and factors of norm, risk avoidance and traffic safety. Relationships between these factors and sex/academic year showed that males’ bicycle riding and traffic behavior were generally riskier than females’, and males’ daily behavior was less normative than females’. There was no difference by sex in the attitude towards helmet wearing. The higher the academic year, the riskier bicycle riding and traffic behavior became, and the less normative daily behavior and helmet wearing were. These were considered to correspond to the developmental characteristics of childhood and early adolescence as well as riding frequency and mileage. Based on the above results, it was suggested that education to reinforce safe attitudes in first year junior high school students is important in order to improve helmet wearing.