Deep sea water is sea water below a depth of 200 m. Japan is the leading country in the world on industrial applications of deep sea water, which has characteristics such as cleanliness, and is rich in various kinds of minerals and inorganic nutrients compared to surface seawater. In addition, applications of deep sea water as a useful resource have become a world interest, especially in fields of presymptomatic diseases called mibyo and in preventive medicine. Evidence of deep sea water applications in experimental and clinical medicine of the following diseases, lifestyle diseases such as dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, diabetes and arteriosclerosis and atopic dermatitis, osteoporosis, cancer, peptic ulcer, cataracts and constipation are given particular attention in this review.
Objectives: We examined the effect of oil intake differing in fatty acid composition on fat accumulation amount, concentration of serum and fat droplets adipocytes of liver tissue in rats.
Methods: Young male rats were fed a high cholesterol diet containing either lard, soybean oil, perilla oil or fish oil for 4wk. The control diet contained a lard component.
Results: Posterior abdominal wall fat and testicle peripheral fat weights were significantly lower in the fish oil group compared with the control and the soybean oil group. The number of fat droplets was significantly higher in the liver tissue of rats in the perilla oil group compared with the other groups, and many fat droplets with small diameters were observed. The proportion of fat droplets to the total area was significantly lower in the perilla oil group and the fish oil group compared with the control and the soybean oil group.
Conclusion: The results suggested that oil intake differing in fatty acid composition correlates with fat accumulation amount and lipid droplet area in the liver tissue. Fish oil intake correlated with reduced visceral fat accumulation and is expected to be useful in the prevention and improvement of obesity.
We evaluated the effects of the extract of Coix-seed Reactive Derivatives (CRD) on female skin pigmentation. Ninety females with facial pigmentation were assigned randomly to 3 groups and CRD (2g/day, 4g/day or placebo) was administrated for 8weeks. We confirmed the safety of CRD, and both the rate of change of facial pigmentation and erythema in 4g/day group decreased significantly (p<0.01). Further studies are needed to define the optimal dose of CRD.
This study used topographic near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to characterize frontal lobe activation while individuals actively or passively listened to exciting or calm music. Participants were 22 healthy female volunteers (mean age, 21± 4.1 years). Initial analysis showed that oxy-Hb significantly decreased in many channels when subjects listened to calm music. In contrast, oxy-Hb significantly increased when subjects listened to lively music. In addition, after listening to calm music, cortisol, α-amylase, and immunoglobulin A significantly decreased. A subsequent analysis showed that oxy-Hb signif-icantly increased when subjects listened to music while clapping to its rhythm compared with when subjects listened to music only. Our study suggests that calm music reduces levels of human stress and enables effective relaxation. In addition, our data suggests that clapping to the rhythm of music increases brain activation. Therefore, active music therapy may be more effective than passive music therapy with respect to brain activation. Such active therapy (i.e., playing rather than listening to music) may improve functional and psychological status, and cooperative abilities.
In this study, we examined the influence of a newly developed Plenus kinme rice on blood pressure and plasma HbA1c value. Twenty five subjects without serious disease were recruited, and 24 subjects were analyzed. After the consumption of musen rice for 8 weeks (control group), Plenus kinme rice was administrated for 16 weeks (test group). The results were as follows: in the test group, systolic blood pressure decreased significantly (p=0.008) and the plasma HbA1c level decreased significantly by stratified analysis (p=0.003). Furthermore, Plenus kinme rice improved several mibyou constitutions such as Gentleness type, Qi-deficiency type, Phlegm-wetness type, Wet-heat type and Qi-depression type. It was concluded that the Plenus kinme rice may be useful for prevention of lifestyle related diseases. Further study will be needed to confirm these effects.
CRD, a Coix-seed Reactive Derivatives, has a novel mechanism in the treatment of various diseases. In the present study, a fluorometric-based high throughput method using cytochrome P450 (CYP)screening kit was adopted to evaluate in vitro inhibition potential of CRD (CRD 1 and CRD 2) on CYP isoenzymes by calculating remaining enzyme activities and inhibitory potential (IC50 values) using the determined values of fluorescence intensity. IC50 of CRD 1 and CRD 2 were as follows: CYP3A4; >500 µg/ml, 490 µg/ml, CYP2D6; >500 µg/ml，>500 µg/ml，CYP2C9; >500 µg/ml，339 µg/ml, respectively. The result showed that CRD exhibited little activity in the inhibition of CYP3A4, CYP2D6 and CYP2C9.
Evidence that Coix-seed Reactive Derivatives (CRD) intake might be effective for allergic conditions is gradually accumulated. Therefore, we studied the influence of CRD intake on Th1/Th2 Balance. Eight Healthy Adults were orally administrated CRD 6g/day for 4 weeks, and we measured the value of blood Th1/Th2. Th2 and Th0 decreased significantly, and Th1/Th2 relatively increased (not significant). Further studies are needed to define the immunomodulatory effects of CRD.
We evaluated the effect of Coix seed with husks on bovine cutaneous papillomas. Boiled coix seed with husks was administered to two cows with intractable cutaneous papillomas. The nodules disappeared or diminished on week 6. Further examination will be needed to confirm these findings.
Peucedanum japonicum Thunb (PJT) has reported the effect of lipid and glucose metabolism at some in vivo and in vitro study. In this study, 21 subjects with dyslipidemia border zone took PJT for 12 weeks. The changes over time of body composition and biochemical test were examined. The values of HbA1c were significantly reduced compared to the values before intake. For body fat percentage, the value at 8 weeks after intake showed a significant decrease compared with the value before intake. Adiponectin was significantly increase after 8 weeks in obese subject. These results suggested PJT may improvement of glucose metabolism.
Functional food research encompasses several types of study designs, including observational studies and randomized clinical trials (RCTs). To clarify the functions of Coix-seed Reactive Derivatives(CRD), we observed 7 refractory skin diseases: case1 Pustulosis palmaris et plantaris, case2 atopic dermatitis, case3 hand eczema, case4 contact dermatitis, case5 wrinkles of a face, case6 acne vulgaris and case7 lentigo senilis(senile pigment freckle). Although CRD intake seemed to be effective in all cases, further studies are needed to define the optimal dose and duration.
We reported 2 cases of intractable warts and a case of intractable vaginal condyloma that were cured by Coix-seed Reactive Derivatives (CRD) and vitamin (folic acid・B1・B6・B12）combination therapy. Further studies are needed to define the efficacy of this treatment.